The basic knowledge and skills for civil engineers which are too much important for all civil engineers and they should keep in their minds. All this Basic knowledge which I am sharing with you is very important.
What You Will Learn in This?
- Primary Knowledge for Civil Engineers
- Basic Knowledge of civil engineering drawing
- Key Knowledge of civil engineering for interviews
- Knowledge of civil engineering in building construction
- Knowledge of civil engineering on site
- Important short forms & full forms of civil engineering words
Primary Knowledge for Civil Engineers
1) First class brick weight should be not less than 3.85 kg
2) Tensile strength of the first-class brick should not be less than 3000 lbs/per inch square
3) The normal building height should be 315 centi meter.
4) The normal height of the riser should be 15 centi meter.
5) One hook length should be not less than 9D.
6) First class brick should be observed the water 1/5 or 1/6 of the brick weight.
7) Window height should be 120 centi meters
8) DBC thickness should be not less than 2.5 centi meters
9) Lintel thickness should be 15 centi meters
10) Normal and local sand FM limit should be 0.5 to 0.8
So, These is the primary knowledge of civil engineers.
Basic Knowledge of Civil Engineering Drawing
It is a technical drawing that shows the information knowledge about site details like landscaping, building plans, gradings. The drawing shows the correct direction of work in the construction site to the civil engineer. Civil draftsman and architectures create the drawings for construction projects like roads, bridges, residential and commercial houses, water, and sewage systems. This is an important knowledge of civil engineers. Every engineer should keep this knowledge in his mind.
There are various types of drawings which is used in civil engineering
1) Architectural Drawings
Architectural drawing is a technical drawing of residential and commercial projects. Architectures fulfill the client’s requirement by showing them different ideas and concepts of proposed construction projects. This drawing includes the floor plan, section, elevation of the proposed project. Drawing is depended upon the size of the sheet, scale, unit of measurement. Historical drawings are created by using paper, sheet, pencil, eraser, table. But nowadays drawings are created by using cad software.
2) Site Plan
A site plan normally shows a construction footstep, passageways, parking, drainage services, sanitary sewer lines, water lines, trails, lighting, and landscaping and backyard components. This plan is used to make improvements on existing or new projects
3) Working Drawing
This drawing is a blueprint of any project, which shows the detail sizes, measurements, notes, dimensions. A working drawing is used on the construction to show the working direction to the engineer. This is a 2-dimensional drawing.
4) Structural Drawing.
This drawing is based on architectural drawings. This plan shows the details of load-carrying members like column, beam, slab, etc. this drawing includes the material required to design the structure. Detail information of material properties like the strength of steel, concrete strength included in the drawing.
Key Knowledge of Civil Engineering for Interviews
1) Slope of Staircase
The slope of staircase varies from 25° to 40° as per the Indian standard code 456-2000
2) Volume of Cement Bag
Weight of 1 cement bag is 50 kg so the volume of 1 cement bag is 0.0347 m³ or 1.23 CFT
3) Expiry Date of Cement Bags
Expiry date is 3 month after the bag is packed.
4) Why is Foundation Provided?
Foundation is provided in order to safely distribute the load of structure in the soil
5) Types of Foundations
6) Calculation of weight of Steel bar
7) Minimum grade of concrete used for RCC
8) Shuttering Removing Time
Side of wall column and Outer side of beam shuttering is removed after the 24 hrs to 48 hrs of concrete. Beam soffits shuttering is removed after 7 days. Slab shuttering is removed after 3 days. Remove the props of the slab after 21 days of span greater than 6m and after 14 days of span less than 6m.
9) What are the Concrete Tests?
Compressive strength test, Slump Test, Water absorption test, Water permeability test
10) What is the Unit Weight of Steel?
78.5 KN/m³ is the unit weight of steel.
11) Unit Weight of Concrete
The unit weight of concrete of RCC is 25 KN/m³ and PCC is 24 KN/m³
12) Compressive Strength of Bricks
First class Brick – 105 kg/cm²
Second class Brick – 70 kg/cm²
Fire Brick – 125 kg/cm²
13) The Setting Time of Cement
Initial setting time is 30 Minutes And the final setting time of cement is 90 minutes.
14) Curing Methos of Concrete
Spraying, Wet covering of Surface, ponding, Curing chemicals, Steam curing, Sprinkling
15) Function of Stirrups in Beams?
Stirrups are used in beams to resist shear force
16) Need of Pile Foundation
Pile foundation is acquired when the soil bearing capacity is less than 24 KN/m³
17) Standard Height
Height of each floor is 3 M
It is a process in which a mixture of cement and sand proportion of 1:3 is shooted on the ground surface with the help of gun pressure of 2 to 3 kg/cm²
This basic questions are asked in interviews. Every engineers must kept this knowledge in your mind.
Knowledge of Civil Engineering in Building Construction
1) Cantiliver anchorage length for main steel is 69D.
2) Bend length (L) for column is minimum 300mm.
3) Chair, minimum diameter of bar is 12mm.
4) Minimum diameter of dowel bar is 12mm.
5) Lapping length should not be used for bar greater than 36mm.
6) Minimum numbers of bars for the square columns are 4 nos and for the circular column is 6 nos.
7) Longitudinal reinforcement should not be less than 0.8% and more than 6% for the gross cross-section.
8) The main bar in the slab shall not be less than 8 mm (HYSD) or 10mm (plain bar) and the distribution no less than 8mm and not more than 1/8 of slab thickness.
9) All reinforcement free from mill scales, loose rust, and courts of paints or oil and any other substances.
So, this is the basic knowledge of building constructions.
Knowledge of civil engineering on site
1: Dead Load means Self weight of Structure
2: DPC means Damp Proof Course. The DPC thickness should not be less than 2.5cm
3: If there is more than 5% moisture content in the sand, that should not be used for concrete mix
4: The curing Period of RCC is 28days.
5: The transverse reinforcement provided in columns are called Ties
6: The transverse reinforcement provided in Beams is called as Stirrups
7: We use Stirrups in Beams and Ties in Column are provided to handle the shear force and to keep longitudinal bars in position.
8: M20 grade of concrete is used in the construction of slab.
9: Hook length should not be less than 9D. (Where D is Diamater of Bar)
10: The rise in stairs is in between 150mm to 200mm.
11: Tread in staircase is in between 250mm to 300mm.
12: The slope or pitch of the stair should be in between 25 degrees to 40 degrees
13: Unit weight of PCC is 24KN/m², RCC is 25 KN/m² ‘Steel is 7850 Kg/m²
14: Cement more than 3 months old cannot be used for construction
15: Standard Size of Brick is 19cm x 9cm x 4cm.
Important short forms & full forms of civil engineering words
|RCC – Reinforced Cement Concrete||AE – Assistant Engineer|
|B.M – Benchmark / Bending moment||APM – Assistant Project Manager|
|BHK – Bedroom, Hall, Kitchen||BOQ – Bill Of Quantities|
|BWK – Brick Work||W.C – Water closet.|
|CC– Cement concrete / Centre To Centre||C.I.Sheet – Corrugated Iron sheet.|
|CE – Chief Engineer||CPM – Critical path method.|
|D – Diameter||D.L – Dead load|
|DPC – Damp proof course.||DPR – Daily Progress Report|
|FL – Floor Level||FOC – Factor Of Safety|
|GL – Ground Level||JE – Junior Engineer|
|Kg – Kilogram||L.L – Live load.|
|MFL – Maximum Flood Level||N – Newton|
|OPC – Ordinary Portland Cement||PCC – Plain Cement Concrete|
|PERT – Programme Evaluation and Review Technique.||PL – Plinth level.|
|QC – Quality control||RCC – Reinforced Cement Concrete|
|RMC – Ready Mixed Concrete||TDS – Total Dissolved Solids|
|W.C – Water closet.||WO – Work Order|
In this blog, you have read the basic knowledge for civil engineers used in exams, interviews, on-site. So these are the important basic knowledge for civil engineer keep in your mind.
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