Language is a medium we use for communicating with each other to understand each other easily. Similarly, the language we use to communicate with a computer is called computer language.
What’s in it for me?
- What is programming languages?
- History of computer languages.
- Levels of computer languages?
- Language Translator.
- Algorithm & Flow chart.
What is programming languages?
A programming language is a set of rules that specify which sequences of symbols constitute a program, and what computation the program describes.
Programming languages allow people to give instructions to a computer with
commands that both the computer and the programmer can understand.
History of computer language.
In the history of programming languages, thousands of different programming languages have already been created, and still many are being generated every year.
The history of programming language can be traced back to the development of Charles Babbage‟s difference engine.
This can only able to execute tasks by changing the gears.
Thus, the earliest form of a computer language was physical motion.
this is replaced by electrical signals when the US Government launched the ENIAC in 1942.
In 1954 IBM established a project directed by John W. Backus to develop a compiler for the model 704 computer.
FORTAN language –
This project resulted in the creation of the language FORTRAN (FORmulae 3 TRANslation) that IBM finished in April 1957.
The language had a notation orientation to mathematicians and scientists.
FORTRAN language is good at handling numbers.
COBOL language – Computer Language.
In 1959, a new language is developed named COBOL (Common Business Oriented Language) for business data processing.
earlier, in 1960 the Algol language created for scientific use.
Although Algol was the first language with a formal grammar, its next version Algol68 became bloated and very difficult to use for general-purpose programming.
In the meantime, Dr. John G. Kemeny and Thomas Kurtz developed the BASIC language at Dartmouth in 1964. BASIC stood for “Beginner’s All-Purpose Symbolic Instruction Code”.
In the year 1966, IBM developed a common programming language with a multi-tasking feature to meet the requirements of both scientific, commercial users, known as PL/I (Programming Language/I).
PASCAL Language –
The pronunciation is Programming Language One. The development of the Pascal language by Niklaus Wirth in 1968 was mainly out of necessity for a good teaching tool for debugging and editing systems.
thus, language was designed, by combining the best features of the COBOL, FORTRAN, and ALGOL language.
C Language –
Dennis M. Ritchie created the „C‟ language at AT&T‟s Bell Laboratories in 1972. This language includes all the features of Pascal with some additional features such as the use of CASE statements and pointers.
Ritchie developed C for the new UNIX system created at the same time. Later on C become the most common language to program operating systems such as UNIX, Windows, the macOS, and Linux.
in the early 1980‟s, a new programming method known as Object-Oriented Programming (OOP) with an idea of representing pieces of data on the form of „Objects‟ that can be packaged and manipulated by the programmer.
C++ Language – Computer Language.
Based on this idea Bjarne Stroustrup in 1983 extended the features of „C‟ language, to develop a new full-featured language known as „C++‟.
after that, Microsoft released Visual Basic for Windows in May 1991. It is a graphical version of BASIC that simplifies the writing of programs for windows.
During the year 1995 the Java language hit the scene. That’s the reason java is widely used object-oriented programming language existing today.
In 2000‟s the expansion of the World Wide Web lead to the demand for internet programming.
As a result, many programming languages such as Perl, PHP, and Python were developed and used by the programmers to develop web applications.
Levels of computer Language?
Low-level language –
Low-level language is a programming language that deals with a computer’s hardware components and constraints.
It has no or a minute level of abstraction in reference to a computer and works to 5 manage a computer’s operational semantics.
Low-level languages can be converted to machine language without using compiler or interpreter, and the converted code can directly run on the processor.
These languages are simple but considered difficult to use, due to its technicality.
Machine language – Computer Language.
This language can only be recognized by the computer without the use of any translator.
this language is in the form of 0 and 1 where 0 means no current and 1 means flowing of current .
This is the only language that the computer can easily understand and it doesn’t need any compiler or translator.
this is the fastest language because it doesn’t need to translate and this is the most compatible language for computer hardware.
But it very hard .Writing codes in this language is very hard to understand and write for the developers.
Assembly language – Computer Language.
Assembly language uses structured commands (mnemonics) as substitutions for numbers allowing humans to read the code easier than looking at binary.
Although it is easier to read than binary language, assembly language is a difficult language and its replaced for a higher language such as C.
The problem with assembly language is that it requires a high level of technical knowledge, therefore it’s slow to write.
Most assemblers provide macros.
High-Level Languages –
At present, High-Level languages have replaced machine and assembly language in all areas of programming.
Also, Programming languages were designed to be high level if it is independent of the underlying machine.
High-level languages (also known as problem-oriented languages) enable a programmer to write programs that are more or less independent of a particular type of computer.
Procedural languages –
These languages use a programming approach, where a developer writes code that describes in exacting detail the steps that the computer must take to accomplish the goal.
Object oriented languages –
These languages use a programming model that represents
concepts as “objects” that have data fields and associated procedures known as methods.
Objects, are examples of classes, that used to interact with the design
applications and computer programs.
Logical Languages –
The programming paradigm in these languages is based on formal
Also, a program written in a logic programming language is a set of sentences in logical form, expressing facts and rules about some problem domain.
Functional languages –
The programming approach in these languages involves composing the problem as a set of functions to be executed.
blocks of code intended to behave like mathematical functions.
Computer Language Translator –
Translator is meant to translate one language to another. So a translator is mainly related to computer language.
In the case of a computer, its hardware part only can operate when instructions are made of 0s and 1s, in machine language. But it is not that easy for human beings to remember them correctly.
Such instructions of machine code are letter and symbol-mnemonics. Mnemonic codes ease programmers to write efficient programs.
At one time, the computer programmer had at his disposal a basic machine that interpreted, through hardware, certain fundamental instructions.
hence, he would program this computer by writing a series of 1s and 0s (machine language), place them into the memory of the machine,
after that, press a button, whereupon the computer would start to interpret them as instructions Programmers found it difficult to write or read programs in a machine language.
In their quest for a more convenient language, they began to use a mnemonic (symbol) for each machine instruction, which they would subsequently translate into machine language.
Also read – computer memory types.
An interpreter is a program which executes a source program usually on a step by step, line by line,or unit by unit basis.
In other words an interpreter will usually execute the smallest possible
meaningful unit in the programming language.
The output of an interpreter is an actual answer. also, the result of performing the actions designated in the program.
The greatest disadvantage of an interpreter is that certain phases of work and analysis must be done repeatedly.
A compiler is a program that translates a program written in a programming language.
The compiler is therefore both language and machine-dependent.
The most important characteristic of a compiler is that its output is a program in some form or another and not an answer of any kind.
A compiler must perform at least the following functions:
analysis of source code, retrieval of appropriate subroutines from a library, storage allocation, and creation of actual machine code.
ALGORITHM & FLOW CHART – In Computer language.
To cope with a problem we need to make a better plan which will be convenient and easy to solve that particular problem.
It is not that we cannot tackle that problem but the thing is that we may not be successful.
We can defined algorithms as
“a process that performs some sequence of operations in order to solve a given problem”.
Algorithms is use for calculation and data processing.
A Flowchart is a type of diagram (graphical or symbolic) that represents an algorithm or process.
A flowchart typically shows the flow of data in a process, detailing the operations/steps in a pictorial format which is easier to understand than reading it in a textual format.
Programming is a part of software engineering used for producing a program- a list of instructionsfor the computer.
Programmers use special programming languages to create the program‟s code. therefore, instructions in a program consist of statements written in a programming language.
A programming language is a set of rules that tells the computer what operation to do during the execution of programs.
thus ,evolution of programming language continues,
in both industry and research based on the requirements of current web technologies including mobile applications.
meanwhile, focus in programming language is Increasing support for functional
programming constructs to support concurrent and distributed programming,
so the Mechanisms for adding security and reliability verification to the language extended static checking, dependent typing, information flow control, static thread safety,
Open source as a developmental philosophy for languages, including the GNU compiler collection and recent languages such as PHP, Python, Ruby, and Squeak, etc.
C language and also, studying with python programming language has a good scope in the future as my opinion, but you have to learn C language for the base.
You can learn it through books or maybe online but it is a very easy language that you can master quite quickly. Although in my opinion, youtube is the best.
machine language is the first generation computer language.
in short, language is a medium to communicate with computer hardware, its two categories are high level and low level.
So,the role of programming language is controm computer hardware
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