Computer Operating systems provide an interface between the user and the hardware and the operating system is the collection of system software.
Whats in it for you?
- What are computer operating systems?
- Types of Operating Systems.
- Generation of Operating Systems.
- The most used Operating Systems.
- First operating system.
- Functions of Operating System.
- How os works.
- How operating systems made.
What are computer operating systems?
The collection of system software is called the operating system.
In short, the computer operating system provide an interface between the user and the computer hardware.
For example – If you are using a phone to read this article you are using an Android operating system.
If you are reading this on a personal computer so it would be Windows or MAC OS.
The operating system enables you to interact with the hardware.
Also, it enables you to use your hardware resources.
Some main functions of the operating system are memory management, process management, security, and File management.
The machine without an operating system is null. As a result, you can’t use it.
You need an operating system to boot the computer without it your computer can’t boot.
All the applications use Operating systems to use Hardware.
In short, internal management, test management, schedule management, hardware management are done by the Operating system.
The core of the operating system is the kernel. In short, it acts as the middle man between your Operating system and hardware
The interface of the operating system comes in two variants GUI (graphical user interface) and CLI (Command Line Interface).
In the GUI Operating system you need a mouse to interact with the computer.
For example – android and windows.
They have a terminal by which you can interact with your computer hardware and do your work.
For example – MS-DOS (Disk Operating System).
Types of Computer operating system –
The working of operating system is different its divided into categories:-
Batch processing Operating system –
So, the jobs having the same requirement are batched.
This method used in the first generation of computers.
For example – If I give a task to the computer like ( p1,a1, ) and ( p2,a2, ) then it arranges the similar tasks firsts like (p1,p2) and (a1,a2).
It executes tasks by grouping it and it’s the slowest operating system.
Time-Sharing Operating system –
This operating system enables many peoples located at different terminals to use a particular computer system at the same time.
For example, if we are withdrawing money from the ATM. Then we use the terminal to access our account. This is also known as a real-time operating system.
Single User Operating system –
The Operating system in which one person can do their work at a time. For example – android.
Multi-user Operating system –
In this more than one user can do their work at a similar time like Unix and Linux.
Multitasking Operating system –
The operating system that can do more than work at a time is called multitasking OS.
Similarly your phone’s android where you can play songs and watch youtube chats on WhatsApp.
For example – Windows XP, Windows 7, and Windows 10 are multitasking computer operating system.
Multiprocessing Operating system –
More than one processor working at the same time in a system is multiprocessing. The mainframe is the example of multiprocessing.
Multi-Programming Operating system –
If, more than one program resides in the main memory at the same time.
Hence, It works similar to multi-tasking.
But the difference is slow as compared to multitasking.
For example – windows 95 is multi-programming OS.
Network Operating System –
This Operating System is used in client-server.
Therefore this known as a network operating system.
For example – windows NT and windows server 2000 is client-server computer operating system.
Generation of Operating system –
Zeroth generation –
In this generation machine was mechanical.
Machine designed using cogs and gears and there was no operating system used.
In this generation of operating systems and due to low speed this os is not so popular.
First Generation –
This generation has electrical design instead of mechanical ones.
vacuum tubes used in this generation. This generation also doesn’t have any Computer Operating System.
Second Generation –
In this transistor is the main technology. Because vacuum tubes take more space and they heat up.
In this generation batch processing operating system used.
Third generation –
The drawback of the transistor is current leakage.
Therefore, in this generation silicon chip is used instead of the transistor.
This generation sting based on integrated circuits.
Thus, This generation supports multi-programming.
Optimization of processor in this generation is very good also it has good job control language.
Fourth Generation –
The technology we are using now is the fourth generation.
large scale integration is used in this generation.
Large scale integration means a package of millions of transistors in a silicon chip.
In this generation, Linux, Mac, and Windows computer operating system were used.
Most used operating systems –
The computer manufactured by other companies except apple is working on windows. Windows is a popular Operating system.
Now which I am typing this blog is windows. In fact, Microsoft Windows has a huge market share in the computer market.
MAC OS –
Macintosh is the operating system designed for Apple computers.
MAC provides a great ecosystem in apple products and its security is on another level.
The CPU utilization of MAC is very good.
industry leaders do their work on MAC.
First Operating system –
The batch processing operating system is the first operating system used in computers during the third generation of computers.
In short, the batch process operating system uses a job to execute the program.
A job has the programming language and the process in it.
In short, the batch process operating system collected the similar requirements jobs and grouped them to save time.
But the drawback is if one job needs any input or output the other once should have to wait.
So, spooling is the method in which if a job wants any input data for processing.
To save the ideal time another job is sent to the CPU. That makes the CPU work more effectively.
For saving time the second job is started processing in the CPU and this makes the computer fast.
Functions of the computer operating system –
Resource management –
When multiple users use the computer then resource management manages the computer cpu utilization.
That is used in parallel processing you can see the resource management by opening the task manager.
Process management –
Multiple processes are managed using the process manager by using CPU scheduling.
For example – If you are playing games and listening to music at the same time then it’s managed by process management.
Storage management –
This manages the harddisk by different storing file systems like NIFS(network internet file system) and CFS (common file system).
That used in windows and their goal is to manage the data storing in the hard disk.
Memory management –
It’s different from storage management. It mainly works in RAM.
As you already know, RAM is limited. That’s the reason we have memory management FOR allocation and deallocation of data in RAM.
Also read – Computer memory types
Security and privacy –
like managing the password in the booting . Also, it provides security in the process.
For example – if a1 and a2 process is processing so it makes sure that both do not interfere with each other and not access their information.
How OS works –
In short, the operating system works as the middle man between the user and the hardware user access the terminal.
Operating system manages the terminal.
In addition, this has 3 layers in its shell which interacts between terminal and operating system.
Then the operating system uses the kernel to interact with the hardware.
Kernel manages hardware and makes sure than no application interacts directly with the hardware.
The most important thing is this provides an additional security layer between the hardware and the software.
It manages memory and the storage devices and so manages that the processor utilization is on its best level or not.
How operating system made –
An operating system made Similarly Softwares are made, the operating system is made using programming languages.
Did you know? C language used for making Linux.
Thousands of lines coding done to make an operating system.
You can also make your operating system.
But it’s not powerful as today’s operating system takes a lot of time to remove bugs and provide security to the os.
Os plays an important role to first configure the driver to connect with the hardware it manages the device using the device manager.
There are two main types of computer operating system CLI (command-line interface) and GUI (Graphic user interface).
Linux is the fastest OS in the computer field.
windows Linux and MAC are some examples of the computer.
The full form of os in the computer is the Operating system.
Computer Expert | Pursuing Computer science | web developer | Graphic designer | Digital marketer soon
I love to learn new stuffs.
Have a good day!