Electrons – A particles that presents in an atom around the nucleus and carries negative charge.
Things that you are going to know in this article –
- What are electrons ?
- Role of electrons in an atom
- Discovery of an electron
- What are electron clouds ?
- What is chemical bond ?
What are electrons ?
Atom has a very complicated structure from outside and inside both. It has nucleus in the center of atom, which carries proton of positive (+) charge and neutron of no charge (0).
And it also has electron which carries negative (-) charge and revolves around the nucleus so it like our solar system according to structure of atom.
Electrons are one of the most complicated thing that presents in every atoms.
A whole atom has positive charge but the electrons is the only thing that carries negative (-) charges,
This is the only thing that balance the structure of an atom.
Basically electrons are a very small part of the interior atom which
Revolves around the nucleus or the center of atom in it’s fixed orbit or shell and carries the negative charge.
There are many electrons presents in the orbits of atoms. Orbits has a limit to fill electron in it and
If they have extra electron remains or in deficiency of electron an atom lose or gain electrons to make stability of the atom and
Makes ions like positive (+) and negative (-)
The electron has no definite shape because it has momentum and it revolves around the nucleus therefore
It is Impossible to find the definite shape of any moving object but scientists assumes that
It has round spherical shape. The mass of electron is about 1/1836 that of proton.
Role of electron in an atom
Electrons plays very important role in an atom. Electrons manages the stability of the atom because
It carries negative (-) charge and nucleus which contains neutron (no charge) and proton which have positive (+) charge
Here the positive charge and the negative charge neutralizes each other hence therefore it maintains the stability of the whole atom.
Electrons are also important for the bonding of individual atoms together. Without this bonding force atoms matter would not be able to interact in the many reactions and forms that we see every day in our daily life.
This interaction between the outer electron layer of an atom is called atomic bonding. It has two types –
- Covalent bond
- Ionic bond
Electric properties of electrons
Electrons are very important to electricity. Electricity is the exchange of electrons in a stream called a current through a conducting medium.
Electrons flows in the wire of electric appliances which you use in your daily life and it also present in static electricity due to friction.
Electric charge is a property of electron that describes how they interact with each other.
To know about the balancing of atom do a experiment take a magnet then and place the north pole of a bar magnet near to the south pole of a second bar magnet,
You will find that the magnet attracts each other.
If, instead, you place the north pole of one magnet near the north pole of another magnet, you will observe that the magnets repel each other.
This mini experiment gives you some idea of what happens with protons and electron in an atom.
The electron which is closest to the nucleus are held atom with a strong force than the electrons farther from the nucleus.
Some atoms hold on their outer electrons with a vengeance, while other are a bit more stressed.
Atoms hold on to their electrons turns out to be important when it comes to electricity
Electrons manages all the important works of atom like bonding, stability and many works and helps atoms in taking part in various chemical reactions.
If electrons did not present in an atoms then you can’t see all the things that you use in daily life.
Discovery of an electron
Electron is discovered after the discovery of atom and molecule. Electrons was discovered by a scientist named J.J. Thomson in 1897 when he was studying about cathode rays .
Cathode rays – J.J. Thomson constructed a glass tube which was partially evacuated i.e. much of air pump out from the tube.
Then he applied current of high voltage between two electrodes at either end of the tube. He detected a stream of particles (ray) was coming out from the positively charged electrodes (cathode) to negatively charged electrode (anode).
This ray is called cathode rays. The particles which travels inside the tube are electrons. Hence the electron discovered.
J.J. Thomson discover the electron but still he could not decide the charge of electron then a scientist named Robert Millikan come. He measured the charge of electron using negatively charged oil droplets.
The measured charge of electron is about -1.60 × 10-19 coulombs.
Using the measured charge of electron, we can calculate the mass of electron from e/m ratio given by J.J. Thomson cathode ray’s experiment.
What are electrons clouds ?
The area around the nucleus of an atom where many electrons presents are called electron cloud because of it’s cloud shape structure. This cloud is negatively charged because every electron carries negative (-) charge.
The electron cloud model is different from other models of atom in which atom is shown as the sun and planets of our solar system.
In electron cloud model scientists focus only on electrons and nucleus of atom and it is full of numerical theoretically therefore it is difficult to understand in practical.
Chemist scientists use the electron cloud model to map out the atomic orbitals for electrons,their shapes helps students to understand about electrons of an atom.
Well nobody can say that electron cloud structure is really exist because nobody see this structure still in real life it is just a hypothesis of scientists.
What is chemical bond ?
When an atom has a extra extra electron or has a deficiency of electron in the valency shell of an atom then an atoms compromise with other atom of other element and this make a relation with that atom and called bond.
A bond is basically found by the sharing of electron with atom of same or other element. There are basically two types of bonds are found –
A covalent bond is also known as molecular bond. Covalent bond are formed by the sharing of electron, these electrons are called shared pairs or bonding pairs and repulsive forces between atoms,
when they share electrons is called covalent bond. Covalent bond does not necessarily require that two atom be of the same element, only that they be of comparable electronegativity.
A ionic bond is a bond which involves the electrostatic attraction between oppositely charged ions and is the primary interaction occurring in ionic compound.
It is one of the main type of bonding along with covalent bonding and metallic bonding. This transfer of electron is known as electrovalence.
Electrons is a very complicated thing in the field of chemistry science. Electrons has not a definite shape because it is always moving like our solar system,
In our solar system all nine planets revolves around the sun in their fixed orbits. It is impossible to find the defiant shape of any moving object.
Electrons plays a very essential role in the formation and in the working of atoms. Electron is like a heart of an every atom particle.
Electron is a very deep and huge topic in itself and it is impossible to explain this topic in detail in a single article.
It is one of the most detailed and difficult topics but it is also interesting topics in itself like nobody can’t find the definite shape, size of any electron. Because it is impossible.
I will explain all the elements related to electron in my next articles.
Electron has no definite shape because it is impossible to find the proper shape of electron because it is always moving like our planets in solar system.
Electrons are always moving around the nucleus of an atom because it maintains the stability of atom. If this does not move then it attract towards positively charged nucleus and then atom will be destroyed.
The charge of an atom is totally depends on it’s valency.
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