I think everyone even you also have seen bricks in your life but do you want to know it in detail there types, composition, and various other points which make it essential for construction then you must read this blog.
Bricks are rectangular hard blocks shape made from clay.
This building material is prepared from clay or soil which is molded into the bar of rectangular shape then dry in the presence of heat and then burnt in a kiln.
Where it is generally used?
- Generally in building to construct wall through masonry construction bricks are used.
- They are also used in brick lintel construction.
- So in concrete for foundation work bats of this material is used.
The following 7 points are responsible why it is essential for construction:
- Composition Of Bricks
- Requirements Of Bricks
- Types Of Bricks
- Uses Of Bricks
- Importance Of Bricks
Composition Of Bricks
The clay should be free from pebbles, gravel, alkalis, organic matter, vegetation, and iron pyrites.
Requirements Of Bricks
- Firstly the red or copper color brick should have proper width and uniformity.
- The kilns are chiefly used to well burnt this material.
- The scratch should be avoided and evenness to be maintained also surface should be even and free from scratch.
- Generally, this material should have sharp edges.
- Table molded types should be preferable so even shape and size can be obtained.
- However, the bricks clay should not contain any organic matter, salts, pebbles etc.
- A scratch mark should be formed in it when scratched with sharp things
- When two bricks are struck, there should be metallic ringing
- It shall not absorb water more than 20% of the dry weight when submerged in water for 24 hours. Water absorption should not be more than 20%
- When brick is dropped from 1meter height it should not break
- Particularly they should have crushing strength varying from 3 Nmm2to 15 Nmm2
Types Of Bricks
(1) Conventional/ Traditional: Size: 23 cm x 11.4 cm x 7.6 cm
(2) Standard / Modular: Size: 19 cm x 9 cm x 9 cm
Bricks are classified as per manufacturing:
(1) Hand molded (ground or table molded)
(2) Machine molded (wire cut)
Bricks are classified as per quality and utility:
(1) 1st class (grade A)
Firstly the surfaces and edges of the bricks are sharp, smooth, and straight.
Secondly the shape is perfect with regular right angle edges. Especially for superior work it is used as it’s of the best quality.
(2) 2nd class (grade B)
Generally, the brick under this class has a rough surface and has a somewhat irregular shape. 2nd class type can be utilized for ordinary work with a plaster coat.
(3) 3rd class (grade C)
So this category has irregular surfaces and distorted edges. This is used when there is a temporary work and not high vital work.
(4) 4th class (grade D)
Firstly these bricks are over burnt, but they are very strong. Secondly, it is dark in color with an irregular shape. So broken bats are made from the 4th class. The brickbats can also play a role in aggregates for concrete work in foundations, roads, various RCC structures, etc.
(1) Perforated Bricks:
These are lightweight material providing better thermal insulation than the common ones. Specifically these bricks have perforations through their entire thickness. Also they are free from flaws, cracks, and nodules of free lime.
They have compressive strength more than 7 N/mm²
In this case their water absorption is maximum 15%
Also, they have a perfect rectangular face with sharp edges.
Size: 19 cm x 19 cm x 9 cm
29 cm x 9 cm x 9 cm
Generally, they are used for partition walls, panel walls of multistoried buildings, and bearing walls of single-storied buildings.
The perforated area is between 30% and 45% of the total area of the face of the brick.
Further each perforation shall have an area that not exceeding 500 mm and perforation is evenly distributed over the surface
(2) Heavy Duty Bricks
These types have high durability and high compressive strength
Used in bridge construction, industrial foundations, and multistoried buildings. Maximum water absorption they have is 10%
They are available in two varieties.
i) Class 40 -Compressive strength 40 N/mm²
(ii) Class 45 -Compressive strength 45 N/mm²
(3) Sand Lime Bricks:
These bricks are made from a mixture of clean sand (90-95%) and hydrated lime (5- 10%).
Size: 19 cm x 9 cm x 9 cm
19 cm X 19 cm X 4 cm
- When Class is 75: Compressive strength is 7.5 to10 N/mm²
- At Class 100: Compressive strength is 10 to15 N/mm²
- When Class 150: Compressive strength is 15 to20 N/mm²
- At Class 200: Compressive strength is 20 N/mm²
As per color:
– Black (by adding carbon black pigment)
– Brown (by adding Iron oxide)
– Green (by adding chromium oxide)
These types have good strength and hardness with uniform color, size, texture, and shape. They are very useful for ornamental work.
(4) Refractory Bricks:
These are made of fire clay and pure sand and are burnt to a high temperature in kilns. Refractory bricks shall not fuse even when heated to 1700°C. Importantly they are heat resistant materials.
Types of refractory bricks
3) sand lime
2) High alumina
Acid Refractory bricks are used for acidic lining and masonry sewer lining. Fire types are made from natural fire clay. Silica types are made from silica powder (95 to 97%) and lime (1 to 2%) to withstand a temperature of 1800-2000°C. Sand lime types are made from clean sand (95%o) and hydrated lime (5%).
Basic bricks are used for basic lining. The raw materials of basic refractory are lime, magnesia, and dolomite.
Neutral types are used to resist the corrosive action of slags and fumes of acid. These types are used for neutral lining chromites.
Bricks are prepared from a mixture of chrome, iron ore, ferrous oxide, bauxite, and silica.
High alumina types contain a high percentage of alumina. Neutral types are unaffected by acidic and basic actions
Various Test Names
- Apparent Porosity and Density
- Water Absorption Test
- Permanent Linear Change Test
- Abrasion Resistance Test
- Creep Deformation Test
- Modulus of Rapture
- Fly ash / Lime Brick Test
Source for above test name: sigmatest.org
- They are manufactured from naturally available material clay.
- It should be light in weight compared to stone.
- They are durable.
- They are low-cost material
- It should possess good strength.
- They are easily available. The standard shape of an ideal brick is rectangular. It has sharp edges and comers. It has sharp edges. The surface is regular and even.
Good bricks are of standard size: 19 x 9 x 9 cm.
- So the most common color of well-burnt brick is red. Dark red color of brick is an indicator of over burning and the yellow color of brick is the indicator of under burning.
- Generally, a single brick will weigh 3.2 to 3.5 kg. Density varies from 1600 kg/m3 to 1900 kg/m3. Compressive strength of brick may vary from 35 kg/cm2 to more than 200 kg/cm2
- Flexural strength of a common building brick should not be less than 10 kg/cm2. Good brick shall possess flexural strength over 20 kg/cm2. Good brick shall possess a shearing strength of 50-70 kg/cm2.
The water absorption value of the good quality of this material shall not be more than 20% – 25%.
- Higher absorption means higher porosity as a result higher absorption will lead to frost action and efflorescence. The durability of this material depends on absorption value frost resistance and efflorescence.
- Due to efflorescence brick surface covered with white or grey patches salts. Higher absorption results in deeper penetration of water which becomes a source of dampness.
- Heat and sound conductivity varies with their density and porosity. So the brick which is very dense and heavy in volume are more likely to possess heat and sound at a great rate.
Uses Of Bricks
- They are used in brick lintel construction.
- In concrete for foundation work bats of this material is used.
You know sand is also as important building material as brick so click here to know more about sand.
Importance Of Bricks
The most important thing that it is used to construct a wall during construction.
Brick masonry walls are load-bearing structures. They divided the space into various rooms along with fire protection, sound/noise insulation, and thermal insulation. Brick is an important building construction material and used in huge amounts in buildings compare to all other materials of construction.
They are used as brickbats as fillers in the foundation of the building. Brick flooring provides skid resistance with the economy. It should be used in lintel and column construction also.
They are light in weight, hence easy to handle. They are clay products, hence eco friendly, cheap, and easily available. Brick manufacturing provides a local source of income to many uneducated people with minimum investment.
The raw material of brick is clay which is naturally available everywhere.
It is due to the presence of Iron oxide in the raw material used and burnt at a high temperature in the kiln.
The bricks which did not pass the quality test or brick waste from demolished buildings collected and crushed into fine aggregates size for further future use.
Yes it is porous and due to which it absorbs moisture
For the area which is more likely to come in contact with fire, we should use Fire-types as regular ones will explode.