The Great Pyramid of Giza is the most mysterious structure in the world. It is also known as the Pyramid of Khufu or the Pyramid of Cheops and one of the Seven Wonders of the ancient World.
As per estimation it was constructed between 2580-2560 B.C. and it is the oldest and largest pyramid in the world with the height of 138.8 meter.
So, let’s find out more information about this amazing structure in this blog.
In this blog, You will find out –
- General introduction of the Great Pyramid of Giza
- Basic concept of structure
- Structural specification
- Materialistic specification
- Services of Great pyramid of Giza
- Issues facing while construction
- Awards & Records
- Visiting Great pyramid of Giza
General introduction of the Great Pyramid of Giza
It is a marvel of human engineering and construction. The three pyramids in Giza situated at El Giza, Egypt. Based upon the marks inside the chamber and other references the Egyptologists believe that pyramid was built in 10-20 years around 2560 B.C.
There are total three number of pyramid in Egypt Pyramid of Khufu, Pyramid of Khafre and Pyramid of Menkaure.
The details of the all three pyramid is as below…
|Name of Pyramid||Height of Pyramid||Year|
|Great Pyramid||138.8 m||2551 B.C.|
|Khafre||136.4 m||2520 B.C.|
|Menkaure||65 m||2490 B.C.|
Basic Concept of Structure
During the third and fourth dynasties of Egypt kings held a unique position in Egyptian society and they believed that God has chosen them to serve as their mediator on earth. Due to that everyone wanted to keep the king’s majesty intact even after his death.
So, at the starting of the Dynastic Era (2950 B.C.) Mastabas were created which was a rectangular structured royal tomb carved in to rock and covered with a flat roof. That is the precursors of pyramids. The oldest pyramid in Egypt was built for King Djoser in 2630 B.C.
Similarly, The great pyramid of Giza was built for the second king of fourth dynasty Pharaoh Khufu. It is the most celebrated pyramid, located at the plateau on the west bank of the Nile River.
There is much scientific theory about the construction of the Great Pyramid. But as per the most accepted hypotheses, it was built by moving huge stones from a quarry and lifting them to the right place.
According to that theory, the accuracy of pyramid’s workmanship is such that all the four sides of the base are closely aligned to the four cardinal compass points. It have the only error of 58 mm in length and all the blocks of chamber and casing stones of Great Pyramid fit together with extremely high precision
Today, We see the outer surface of Great Pyramid as in the stepped form. But originally it was covered by limestone which the surface smooth and sloppy. However, Still somewhere the covered stones can be seen around the base.
So, at the time of the construction of the Great Pyramid the original height was about 146.6 m but due to the removal of its casing, its present height is 137 meters only. The sides of the pyramid also analyzed after the removal of the casing is about 230.4 m. The total volume of the pyramid is roughly 2,300,000 cubic meters.
Inside the Pyramid
Inside the Great Pyramid there are a total three-chamber king’s chamber, queen’s chamber, and grand gallery.
The main entrance to the great pyramid is on the north side with the 17 meters above the ground level and 7.9 meters east of the center line of the pyramid. From the main entrance there is a sloppy passage that goes down with 0.96 m in height and 1.4 meters wide. After a distance of 105.23 meter passage becomes level and continues 8.84 meters to the lower chamber (as shown in the picture).
After the distance of 28.2 meters from the main entrance in descending passage there is a hole in the roof which is the starting of other passage in ascending order. The size of the ascending passage is the same as the descending passage with a length of 39.3 meters. The slop of both passages is the same (as shown in the picture).
The lower end of the ascending passage is closed with the stone. So, Robbers tunnel constructed latter to enter in the ascending passage. It also used at present for entrance.
In the end, the upper end of ascending passage “Grand Gallery” is started and there is a hole cut in the wall which follows an irregular path to the descending passage. Also at the start of the Grand Gallery there is a horizontal passage that goes to the “Queen Chamber”.
The Grand Gallery goes to the “King’s Chamber” with the same slop of ascending passage. The height of the Grand Gallery is 8.6 meter and the length is about 46.68 meters. It’s width at the base is about 2.06 meters but after 2.29 meters above its width continuously decreasing in stepped form. So, at the top its width is only 1.04 meter.
As per the estimation, The total weight of the pyramid is about 6 million tonnes which consist of 2.3 million limestone and granite blocks.
The stone block was transported from Aswan which is 800 km away. However, Each of the blocks have the average weight of 2.5 tonnes. The largest granite stone found in the King’s chamber which weight is about 25-80 tonne.
Services of Great Pyramid of Giza
At the fourth dynasties the pyramid used as the tomb of the king and everything the king would need in the afterlife was buried with him like gold vessels, food, furniture, and other offerings.
The Great Pyramid of Giza was also built for the second king of fourth dynasty Pharaoh Khufu.
Today It is a major tourist attraction in Egypt and thousands of visitors comes to visit this amazing structure.
Issues Facing while Construction
Construction of this amazing structure still a mystery for all that how such kind of big structure built without any kind of equipment and vehicle for transportation and lifting stones?
Cutting of Rocks of Stones
For the cutting of stone from rough blocks, Egyptians used grooves. They hammered it into natural stone faces, inserted wooden wedges and then soaking these with water. Wedges expanded due to water absorption and stone break as per requirement.
Transportation of Stones
Once the block was cut the transportation becomes a huge issue for them because the weight of each stone was about 2.5 tonne. For that they put wooden sleds below the stone which reduces the friction about 50 percentage.
There are many assumptions about the lifting of hat much of stone to the top. Among them, the most common assumption is that they use a spiracle ramp with wooden sleds for lifting the stone to the top (as shoe in the picture).
Awards & Records
With the height of 146.5 meters it is the tallest man-made structure of the world for the 3800 years. After that the Lincoln Cathedral was completed in 1311 AD.
Still, It is the tallest Pyramid in the world at present. Also, the oldest structure included in the “seven wonders of the ancient world”.
Visiting Great pyramid of Giza
After getting so much information about this amazing structure, everyone wants to get a tour of this. So, if you plan a trip to Egypt your trip will not complete without visiting this pyramid.
Way to reach The Great Pyramid of Giza
The only way to reach The Great Pyramid of Giza is to take the private taxi as per your requirement because no tour buses take you to here. After reaching the spot there are house riding available to go nearby the pyramid.
Timing for visiting
- October to March – 8 am to 5 am
- April to September – 7 am to 7 pm
- General site entrance ticket price 200 EGP
- Great Pyramid ticket price 400 EGP
- Khafree’s pyramid price 100 EGP
- Menkaure’s pyramid price 100 EGP
- Combine ticket price 500 EGP
In nutshell, I want to say that The Great Pyramid of Giza is still become a mystery for the scientists and engineers. Similarly, the procedure of construction of this huge structure at that time without any equipment also a mystery for all.
If anyone have interested in that kind of mysteries structure then it is the right place for them to visit once in a life.
Frequently Asked Questions
It is estimated that it was built between 2580-2560 B.C.
It was built as a tomb for second king of fourth dynasty Pharaoh Khufu.
It’s original height was about 146.6 m but due to the removal of its casing at present it have height of 137 meter only.
Its total volume is about 2,30,000 cubic meter.
Total 2.5 millions of stones used in Great Pyramid of Giza pyramid.
It is located at El Giza, Egypt.
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