Generally, the sand is useful in various construction activities like flooring masonry work, plasterwork, and concrete work. As grain size of it is finer because rocks come under weathering action of the high kinetic energy of waves.
Sand is the particles consist of small grains of stones formed due to weathering.
So in this blog, you will get the in-depth knowledge one should have about sand
Important aspect of sand are:
- Origin Of Sand
- Geological Cycle And Formation.
- Transportation Of sand
- Types Of Sand
- FAQ About Sand
Origin Of Sand
So it started from billions of years ago naturally, by the erosion, weathering, and the breakdown of the rocks and it’s a part of the endless cycle of rocks.
Also, it develops near the beaches to the stones located near shore or in between through the power of waves. Generally higher the energy of waves finer the grain size of sand as rocks comes under weathering action of the high kinetic energy of waves.
Geological Cycle And Formation
It helps in forming geological cycle. This geological cycle consists of following stages.
The weathering are of two types they are:
|Physical Weathering||Chemical Weathering|
|Factors responsible are:||The processes involved are:|
|Wedging action of ice||Carbonation|
|Spreading of roots of plants||Oxidation|
Cohesion less soils (Sand) are shaped by using Physical weathering. Cohesive soils (Clay) are formed by way of Chemical weathering.
Physical or mechanical weathering is termed as the system that concerned disintegration into small lengths because of changes in temperature, wedging action of ice, roots spread by using plants, and many others without making any changes in its residences
• Temperature Charges:
Generally, different coefficients of thermal growth for different minerals of rocks.
As there may be temperature modifications occur, improper expansion and contraction happens in these minerals because of which it consequences in stresses in rocks and disintegration of the rock particles.
• Wedging Movement of Ice:
Whenever water grasp within the pores cracks of rocks get frozen.
Expansion happens as the quantity of ice shaped is greater than that of water.
The disintegration of rock is caused due to stress developed in rocks due to the which the wedging movement of the ice fashioned.
• Spreading of Roots of Plants:
Generally, disintegrating of rocks occur due to growth of cracks and fissures in roots of timber and shrubs which apply force on the rock
Formation of rock occurred as water, wind, and glaciers pass over the surface of the rock, as a result, abrasion, and scouring takes place.
The chemical weathering develops due to change inside the chemical residences of rock minerals, new compounds are fashioned.
So in this method formation of a new chemical compound occurs as the water combines with the rock minerals. Also, the important thing is chemical reaction reasons a change in extent and decomposition of rock into small debris.
Generally, in this procedure, carbon dioxide inside the ecosystem comes in contact with water to shape carbonic acid. The carbonic acid has a chemical reaction with rocks and it results in their decomposition.
In like manner in this system oxygen within the ecosystem comes in contact with minerals in rocks. Decomposition of rocks caused due to oxidation. However, oxidation of rocks is somewhat similar to the rusting of steel.
• Solution (Leaching):
Some of the rock minerals (e.g. CaCO3) shape a solution with water after they get dissolved in water. Then the chemical response takes place inside the solution and they are fashioned.
Transportation of Sand
The companies chargeable for the transportation of soil debris are,
Sand in large amounts can be transported by moving water running water. Also, it may be transported in the means of suspended particles which are in the form suspended and sliding at stream bottom. The size ranges from boulders to clay and is moved by this type of transportation.
Coarser particles are dropped whilst a decrease in water velocity happens. The finer particles are carried further downstream and deposited when the rate reduces while coarser gets dropped when a low velocity of water occurs.
Particles that are carried and deposited through water (river) are referred to as alluvial deposits soil particles, carried by using rivers at the same time as entering a lake deposit all the coarse particles because of a sudden lower in velocity.
These types of deposits generally are Lake Delta.
Lacustrine deposits occur in the middle of the lake when finer particles get settled when water gets steady. These types of deposits are not suitable for foundations due to various drawbacks in properties. Hence this type of seawater sediments of coarse and fine are marine deposits
The deposits are called aeolian deposits when wind can transport and sediment the quality grained soils.
Due to this wind deposition, large dunes of sand are shaped. Generally, it is most commonly found in the USA, Asia, and Africa deserts.
So in a stable condition with cementing material when slit and clays deposited is known as loess
Further if you want know more more about sand dunes click here
When the compaction of snow appears it causes glacier massive deposit of ice. So as the glaciers grow and flow, they convey with them soils varying in size from satisfactory grained to large boulders. So soils are transported far from their original place, as they get mixed with the ice.
Drift is a standard period used for the deposits made by way of glaciers immediately or indirectly. Till termed as the deposits immediately made through the melting of glaciers.
The material is terminal moraine as landform or topographic floor after a dropping of the glacier.
The land which was once covered through glaciers and on which till has been deposited after melting is referred to as ground moraine. The term ground moraine is referred to when the land which was once covered through glaciers and on which till has been deposited after melting.
The soil carried with the aid of the melting water from the front of a glacier is termed out-wash.
Gravity Deposited Soils
Soils transported and deposited by gravity are called colluvial soils. Gravity can transport it for a quick distance. As the movement is limited, there is no considerable change inside the substances moved thus resulting in deposits which are known as talus.
Talus includes irregular coarse debris. It is a good source of broken rock portions and coarse-grained soils for lots of engineering works
Types of Sand
Natural: Natural type is obtained from pits, river beds and sea beads
Artificial: Artificial type is fashioned by decomposition of sandstone due to various weathering effects. It is also known as M type in the present day.
So as in keeping with length, they are of types
(1) Fine sand and (2) Coarse sand.
So the material passing through seventy-five mm IS sieve is known as high-quality sand and retained on it is referred to as coarse sand.
- It is a material which is available naturally.
- It is durable.
- Easily gets mixed with other materials.
- It has vibrant luster.
- It is of whitish brown colour
- Generally it is utilized in cement mortar, lime mortar, simple cement concrete,
- Overall reinforced cement concrete, and prestressed concrete performs as a key factor in building production.
- Also, be used to prepare sand lime bricks. Similarly, if you want to know more about bricks here.
- To conclude sands fine aggregate is the vital material for construction work.
- It prepares Cement Mortar (CM) and Cement Concrete (CC) through mixing with cement-like binding fabric. Generally in cement concrete they fill the porous space in coarse aggregates.
FAQ About Sand
The increase in volume of it due to the presence of moisture is known as bulking of sand
Coarse sand is used in concrete.
It is a method to separate sand from water.
It depends on the grade and ratio of the mix. For example, if the ratio is 1:3 then we should take 3 parts of sand with 1 part of cement which is 1:3= 150 kg for 50 kg cement bag.
Generally it is taken as 6 parts of sand to 1 part of cement.