We used to be a same country until 14 august 1947.One of the most prominent reason for partition and india pakistan war was based upon religious differences between Hindu and Muslim ideology (that’s what is written officially).
With partition came feeling of hatred between nations, came many unresolved disputed land cases, Kashmir and Indus river being the biggest among them.
Which later became the reason for several blows and ugly wars between nations which further strengthen their hatred for each other to such an extent that we don’t even play or even work together now.
In this article we shall discuss the notorious wars of 1965 and 1971 that took place between us year by year. So, lets get started:
WHAT WE WILL LEARN:
- WAR OF 1965
- Why it started?
- PRE WAR CIRCUMSTANCES
- PAKISTAN’S MAIN MOTIVE
- KEY FEATURES OF INDIA’S RETALIATION
- END OF WAR
- FINAL RESULT
- WAR OF 1971
- THE WAR
- FREQUENTLY ASKED QUESTIONS
INDIA PAKISTAN WAR OF 1965
WHY IT STARTED?
Pakistan’s Side: Gen Ayub khan
- Since India lost to China in the indo china war of 1962, Pakistan perceived this as a weakness of indian army as a result they felt their armed forces are much capable comparatively.
- Secondly, Pakistan at that point of time had qualitative edge over their military machines and air power.
- They thought this to be perfect time to attack.
- They wanted to annex Kashmir for then and forever by India pakistan war.
India’s condition: Lal bahadur shastri
- Firstly,Nehru died in 1964 and as he was a powerful figure in not only indian politics but all over the world. India’s political scenario was now certainly fragile.
- Secondly India’s was economically weak at that point of time.
- And nail in the coffin was no progress in solving Kashmir dispute since independence even after several India pakistan wars.
PRE WAR CIRCUMSTANCES:
In April 1965 Pakistani soldiers started firing near SIR CREEK LINE in Rann of Kutch which bought India to conference table to resolve this dispute.
Pakistan’s objective of pulling indian government was gained. and felt confident about the fact that if they further put a little strategical pressure on India they would be able to de freeze Kashmir issue as well and would gain upper hand in India pakistan war
PAKISTAN’S MAIN MOTIVE:
- Start armed struggle in kashmir in order to turn people against India.
- Secondly, bring India to conference table without carrying a full fledged war
- Meanwhile capture entire region of Kashmir.
In accord of which Pakistan started Operation Gibraltar on AUGUST 1965.
- In which several special force soldiers and paratroopers were made infiltrate to Kashmir valley along cease fire line.
- They did so in order to turn kashmiri against indian government and acquire control over important strategic point.
- However, their this Mission failed miserably as they didn’t got support of kashmiri locals.
- As a result of which they started a new Mission which was called Operation GRAND SLAM
India Pakistan war was started on September 1965. Since their previous operation failed, this was a full blown attack to capture a very important strategic location Akhnoor which connected Rajouri an important city of Jammu and Kashmir.
- Pakistan air force started severe bombing campaign in Kashmir which was quite successful for them.
- In response of which indian forces retaliated and tried to repulse the attack through PUNJAB THEATRE.
ALSO LEARN ABOUT : INDO CHINA WAR
KEY FEATURES OF INDIA’S RETALIATION
- India opened a new front in punjab of Pakistan to deviate Pakistan’s attack and bring their army to pressure, indian army gained an upper hand and reached till outskirts of Lahore with armoured machines and tanks.
- Meanwhile Pakistan army again attacked and captured Khem Karan.
- Indian army fought a fierce battle called Asal puttar to recapture it.
- Pakistan had more advance armours, that were supplied to them by USA directly, however India’s strategical approach was better to such an extent that they destroyed superior machines of Pakistan contrary to their on field approach PAF(Pakistan Air-force) inflicted huge damage initially but were later
END OF WAR
- USA and SOVIET Union mediated throughout the war and were successful to stop the INDIA PAKISTAN WAR on 22 September 1965.
- Fight stopped next day .
- Finally, ceasefire began.
CASUALTIES DURING INDIA PAKISTAN WAR 1965
- Government released no official data till date
- Some independent sources claim 3000 indian and 3800 Pakistani soldiers died
Both India and Pakistani government claimed victory
However, neutral assessment said India had an upper hand and would’ve won the India Pakistan War if it continued for few more weeks or months.
- TASHKENT Declaration on 10 January 1960 were signed as Soviet Union as mediator and return to pre war international boundary were agreed by both nations.
However, this peace treaty was not followed for a long time. Again a India Pakistan war was fought in 1971, lets discuss it:
ALSO LEARN ABOUT: WORLD WAR 1
INDIA PAKISTAN WAR OF 1971
- Firstly, Pakistan separated from India to form another country.
- It got divided in two different parts west and east Pakistan(modern day Bangladesh).
- There was no geographical link between the two nations, even both these parts shared a very unlike culture.
- Urdu and Punjabi was predominantly spoken in west whereas in east, Bangla was spoken by most.
- All the elite powers were given in hands of West Pakistan to which people of East Pakistan felt discriminated(though their population was more comparatively).
As a result of which several protest and movement started and people of east Pakistan came up with some demands and they were:
- Federal state
- Separate currency and fiscal policy.
- Independence in foreign trade and different forex reserve.
- Taxation power
- Separate military and navy.
ALSO LEARN ABOUT : BATTLE OF PANIPAT
MEANWHILE IN WEST PAKISTAN
- In Pakistan there were no national assembly election till 1970 and which their leader of Pakistan’s people party agreed to carry on.
- Meanwhile, east Pakistan got hit by strong flood and cyclone which causes heavy human loss, but the Pakistan government didn’t took step to overcome this situation which caused feeling of left out in east Pakistani’s and which clearly reflected on upcoming election and
- AWAMI League of Sheikh Mujibur Rahman gained majority winning 160 seats out of 300 and despite of it he was not given control instead he along with Bhutto was jailed by president Yahya khan.
- However it caused huge level strike in east Pakistan
- And Awami league formed a quasi government in march 1971.
- Pakistan army tried to suppress the protest using force because of which on 26 March 1971.
- Awami league announced secession which was however counterattacked by Pakistan by OPERATION SEARCHLIGHT which was nothing was a brutal genocide.
- The Pakistan army backed militia killed a large number of Bengali intelligentsia, students, Awami league supporters and students in which about 5 lakh people were killed brutally.
- During this time, about 2-4 lakh Bengali women were raped and this was done just to make an environment of panic among bengalis.
This was nothing but crime against humanity. Against this heinous crime, east Pakistan came resistance movement with Mukti Bahini which was supported by indian government.
Initially india maintained a neutral stand (as there were protest going on india itself in Assam and Mizoram demanding for free nation ) to maintain ideological intactness but as the heinous crimes of Pakistan army continued India decided to jump into the war in support to east Pakistan.
THE INDIA PAKISTAN WAR 1971
- On 3 December, war started with Pakistan air force raiding indian air bases near western frontier and India retaliated with a full fledged attack on western as well as eastern front.
- India surrounded east Pakistan with all its 3 sides, USA came in support of Pakistan which was nullified as India gained support of soviet union.
- India won in just 13 days and war ended on 16 December, 1971. in the leadership of field marshal Manekshaw
- Official surrender letter of Pakistan was sign of their defeat.
- LT. Gen. Aak Niazi signed to Lt gen JS. Aurora
POST WAR SCENARIO
- Sheikh Mujibur Rahman came to power on 12 january 1972.
- In Pakistan Z.A bhutto came to power after Yahya khan resignation.
- It was the official agreement. Leaders of both nations on 2 July 1972 signed it.
- India gave back Pakistan occupied land.
- Prisoners of war were return back.
- Recognition of LOC.
- Peaceful bilateral negotiations on Kashmir issue.
India pakistan and Bangladesh were one happy nation until it fell prey to ill intentions of some of those in power. This divide and rule is not only effective in case of nations but also to us individuals, it affects relations terribly.
When one nation suffers, its repo-cautions also affects neighbouring nations. As when there was a war in Bangladesh, about 10 million refugee had no other option then to fled to India which exploited natural resources of north eastern nation many folds. War is nothing but a fools weapon was truly said, So let’s learn and keep growing.