Both India and China are fast growing economies and have the potential to become next superpower, indo china war is proof that we as neighbouring nations have never shared a sweet bond.
With the recent corona virus outbreak and no big international agencies are daring to lay an eye upon or stating a finger towards Chinese government despite them presenting ill facts we clearly get the idea that
But what is constant throughout these developing years in china is a constant state of wars be it small or big. One such war was the indo china war of 1962 which is another very important affair in world history and here we shall learn about all it’s complexities and that to in an easy peasy manner. All the bravado and the strategies, so let’s get started.
- THE WAR 1962
- WHY INDIA LOST
- WHY CHINA STEPPED BACK
- IMPACT ON INDIA
- FREQUENTLY ASKED QUESTIONS
HISTORY OF INDO CHINA WAR
INDIA CHINA RELATIONS
Both India and china got independence nearly same time in history
- India got independence on 1947
- China got independence on 1949
India got free from the Britishers while in china a communist government was formed after a long grind between nationalist and the communist.
Initially relationship between India and china was strong as India always favoured china to such a extent that it gave its veto power in 1960 to china. Indian Prime Minister Nehru mentioned the reason that India is a non aligned nation and does not need it which is still considered one of the pathetic decision.
WHAT HAPPENED IN 1950
CHINA annexed TIBET which was a semi autonomous nation by then and Dalai Lama was the spiritual and political leader of Tibet. But china claimed it to a historical part of China and captured Tibet. Now India shared a common boundary with China.
WHAT HAPPENED IN 1954
In 1954 five principles of peaceful coexistence under which India acknowledged Chinese sovereignty in Tibet were signed which is know as PANCHSHEEL accords. At that point of time when many powerful nations were showing their dissatisfaction to china’s doing India remained silent and which later became reason of their weakend relation and thus war .
Historically, India and china never shared a sharp boundary line. It is decided either on factors like area of dominance or geographic factors like mountain ranges in this case and as soon as merging of Tibet in china.
China began claiming Indian part of land predominantly in Arunanchal Pradesh and Jammu and Kashmir ( in modern day leh) .
1. AKSAI CHIN:
Aksai chin was a part in northern eastern leh region of India which is now a part of china. It is a plateu in high altitude. Harsh climatic conditions led to its sparse population.
2. NEFA/Tawang/SOUTH Tibet:
This disputed area is in northern Arunachal pradesh of India
WHAT HAPPENED IN 1956
China started constructing roads in 1956 in Aksai chin linking Xinjiang to lahasa which was capital city of tibet under the nose of indian administration without knowing it for 2 years.
WHAT HAPPENED IN 1959
In 1959 an uprising against china in tibet war carried out.
Chinese military immediately crushed it as a result :
Dalai lama the spiritual leader of tibet fled to India and given refugee. Prime Minister Nehru welcomed him .
- For the first time India started criticising the deeds of Chinese government openly.
- In return of which Chinese government stated India should not give refugee to Dalai lama or the Tibetan people .As Dalai lama is no longer their political leader.
- Then a new Tibetan government in -exile was setup in dharamshala district of himanchal pradesh which is a state in northern India.
WHAT HAPPENED IN 1960
In 1960 Zhou Enlai the premier of china visited India to propose a condition to indian government which stated that:
- India shall maintain a status quo.
- India and china should take back their armies 20 km before the Aksai chin and NEFA.
- Our Prime Minister declined it as both were a inseparable part of our country and china had no right in stating so.
Meanwhile a continuous state of tension between India and China started in border patrols and minor attacks started at the boundary lines which resulted in death of many indian soldiers.
SEE ALSO: BATTLES OF PANIPAT
THE FORWARD POLICY 1960
- India keeping in mind the activities of china came up with the idea of frontier policy. Earlier there was not much involvement of indian army near the borders ( only Assam rifles were assigned duty of India china borders)but as a result of foreign policy Prime minister Nehru decided indian army should occupy and retaliate if necessary along the frontier area ( MCMAHON LINE and Aksai Chin)
- Hearing of which Mao Zedong President of china assumed indian intention of liting up a battle to free tibet or to gain control of tibet in their hands and announced china will undergo a war with India and announced THE FRONTIER POLICY accountable for it.
ALSO LEARN ABOUT : CHINA USA TRADE WAR
THE INDO CHINA WAR 1962
- Finally the day came bursting out of tension and a indo china war broke out in 20 October and it continued nearly for one month and ended finally on 21 November 1962.
- China overrun India in merely four days and ran over NEFA and Tawang (reached till bomdila and tezpur in modern day Assam).
- indo china war nearly stagnated for next 3 weeks and a series of negotiations started between representatives of countries.
- Several proposals came into action.
- They were humiliating for Indian government and to which Nehru declined.
- Again indo china war began on 14 November fiercely in NEFA and Aksai Chin
- Battle of REZANG LA in Ladakh started in which 123 brave indian soldiers of 13th kumaon fought with nearly 1000 chinese soldiers at a terrific height of 17000 ft.
- Our battalion was led by Major Shaitan Singh, out of 123 nearly 114 brave soldiers martyred.
- Finally, china stepped back after ongoing struggle between armies,
- They stepped back 60km from NEFA but refused to leave Aksai Chin
- It led to formation of LAC (LINE OF ACTUAL CONTROL).
- 1386 indian soldiers martyred
- 1,696 missing 1,047 wounded 3,968 captured
- 1700 chinese soldiers wounded, 722 killed
- Air force and Navy were not used for this battle.
- It was a high altitude war.
- Sino indian battle is its other name.
- 80,000 chinese and 20,000 indian soldiers participated
- SEE ALSO : WAR MOVIES AND SERIES
WHY INDIA LOST
- Lack of modern weapons
- Unprepared for war
- Poor transportation system in northern and north eastern India
WHY CHINA STEPPED BACK
- China’s main motive to showcase power for territorial dispute achieved
- gained control over Aksai Chin.
- INDIA stepped backed forward policy.
- CHINA feared of USA entering the war in support of India
- USA, UK and USSR supported us.
IMPACT ON INDIA:
- Our PRIME MINISTER Pandit JAWAHARLAL NEHRU who had an image of capable statesman got vanished after this incident. His prestige suffered a huge blow, he was then constantly targeted as a weak diplomat by opposition parties.
- One positive which we took from this war is, post war India strengthened its army, its transportation system in hilly areas (especially north east) and its weapon system.
- Post this indo china war, CHINA and Pakistan became allies. Earlier where only Pakistan was our rival nation , this incident told us we have to always keep an eye on activities of China too.
This article will be incomplete it is very important to mention the name of our brave soldiers who fought this indo china war. Here’s a list of those soldiers who received gallantry awards for their services for indo china war.
- Parma Sir Chakra:
- Maha Vir Chakra
ALSO LEARN ABOUT : INDIA PAKISTAN WARS
We often hear saying that it is the neighbours which are the first supposed to come for help in time of crises, even before relatives. But in our case, it is the neighbours which are the reason of our crises isn’t it funny.
All south asian countries should step forward to harmony which will help us and our fellow nations to reach new economic heights.
And in my opinion its a fact that war isn’t won by anyone, in return it takes so much from us. All we can do is learn and grow from our past mistakes.
Learn and grow..