Integrated circuits was invented in 1958 by Jack Kilby and Robert Noyce. But, Integrated Circuits’ invention all computer parts were made individually. So, the computer was so big and heavy. That time ICs were not available. so, vacuum tubes were used more in computers.
- What is Integrated Circuit?
- Why we need to develop integrated circuits?
- How Integrated Circuits are made?
- Type of Integrated Circuits Packages
- Moore’s law | Future of the Integrated Circuits
- Why transistor is called as transistor?
- Are transistor radios still made?
What is Integrated Circuit?
Integrated circuit is small chip that contain millions and billions of transistor, resistor and capacitors. Integrated circuits are made of semiconductor(mostly silicon). It is used in computers, machine, robots and probably in every electronic device.
Integrated circuit can have 3 to 500+ pin(legs). At really micro level ICs are made of semiconductor wafer, copper and other things.
Why we need to develop integrated circuits?
As shown in above figure vacuum tubes have one anode and one cathode. When we heat up the cathode, the electron get energy. And it reach to anode by travelling in the vacuum. But, it requires very high energy to leave from the cathode surface. And then it reach to the anode.
Secondly, We have to create vacuum. So electrons can’t lose energy. That time computers had thousands of vacuum tubes. And creating vacuum in every single tube was really hard thing.
Because of applying high amount of voltage it heats up. Therefore, its lifespan was so much short. Every time the vacuum tube stop working, we have to change it. And It was really so costly.
The filament only release electron when it reaches to some temperature. So, We have to provide high power electricity for it.
Vacuum tubes were really bulky and heavy. And so many other problems was there.
That’s why we need to develop ICs.
How Integrated Circuits are made?
The main material used to make IC is semiconductor. And Manufacturing semiconductor is really expensive. Therefore, Many countries don’t manufacture semiconductor. Taiwan Semiconductor Manufacturing Company is the world’s largest semiconductor manufacturer company.
The mostly used semiconductor is silicon, and it can be found in sand.
Firstly, they take out the silicon from the sand and make ingot from it. Then after, they cut the silicon and make semiconductor wafers. Such type of wafers of semiconductor and copper and many different material sets over each other and make dies. Then after, many process the IC became ready.
The main parameters that comes under consideration is Area of IC, Power of IC, and Speed of IC. By increasing power and speed and decreasing area of IC, we can fit more transistor and capacitors in small size. That way we can make more powerful ICs in small size.
Type of Integrated Circuits Packages
- SIPP IC (single in line pin package)
- This type of ICs have pins in line.
- This type of ICs were used in old TV, monitor, radios, etc.
- DIPP IC (dual in line pin package)
- This type of ICs have two in line pins.
- This ICs are still in use of many electronic devices.
- QUARD IC (quad pin package)
- This type of ICs are square shaped and have pins ( legs ) on all its four side.
- PGA IC (pin grid array)
- BGA IC (ball grid array)
- This is a modern type of IC.
- Most of the mobile phone and the modern electric devises are made of BGA IC.
- PLCC IC (plastic loaded chip carrier)
- This ICs have plastic’s shield, around them.
- LCC (loaded/leadless chip carrier)
- This is an integrated circuit package that has no pins/leads for contact.
Gordon Earle Moore, the co-founder and chairman emeritus of Intel Corporation said that the number of transistors in a integrated circuit, doubles approximately every two years. His this statement is famous as “Moore’s law”.
Future of the Integrated Circuits
We are using silicon in transistor because, it’s best out of any other semiconductors. And we are using it since many decades. According to “Moore’s law” number of transistors in computer chips (IC) will double every two years.
This law is giving its existence proof since 40 plus years. We are seeing that every two year transistor count is doubled. Transistors are becoming small and small every year. But, for how long we can compress it? It seems like we have reached its maximum compression level now. So, We can’t compress it anymore. And it looks like the end of Moore’s law!
Now, some inventors are talking about using gallium oxide [Ga2O3] instead of silicon. Because, Ga2O3 has larger bandgap in compare to silicon. Bandgap is a difference in energy between the valence band and the conduction band. That means we could fit more gallium oxide transistors in chip than silicon transistors.
If this thing will be successful, the new way of computing will be in existence. Like quantum computing and optical computing. And these computers are going to change the world.
Why transistor is called as transistor?
The transistor was invented at the Bell Labs by John Bardeen, Walter Brattain, and William Shockley. But, the inventors were confused about its name. They had decided several number of names. but still, the invention was incredible so they were wanted to select the perfect one. Then the Bell Labs decided to ask to all the employees of Bell Labs.
There was total six name with its meaning was announced. All the employees voted their choice. And definitely the name “Transistor” won the election.
You can read the meaning of all names in the given image.
You can see full ballot paper PDF from this link: https://beatriceco.com/bti/porticus/bell/pdf/transistorname.pdf
Are transistor radios still made?
Yes transistor radios are still made. And you may using it also!
Because, the transistor radio are still commonly uses in car radios.
Some person don’t have the internet or they don’t want to use internet. Therefore, they are still using transistor radios.
The knee voltage of the protection circuit is accurate to within a few percent. Due to the use of an integrated bandgap voltage reference. In conclusion, The protection circuit spans a very wide current range. And can protect the IC against the worst power transients without drawing a noticeable current when it is not needed.
The integrated circuit uses a semiconductor material as the working table and frequently silicon is selected for the task. electrical components such as diodes, transistors and resistors, etc. are added to this chip in minimized form and the silicon is known as a wafer in this assembly.
An integrated circuit, or IC, is small chip that can function as an amplifier, oscillator, timer, microprocessor, or even computer memory and An IC is a small wafer, usually made of silicon, that can hold anywhere from hundreds to millions of transistors, resistors, and capacitors.
The advent of the integrated circuit revolutionized the electronics industry and paved the way for devices such as mobile phones, computers, CD players, televisions, and many appliances found around the home. In addition, the spread of the chips helped to bring advanced electronic devices to all parts of the world.
Semiconductor test equipment (IC tester), or automated test equipment (ATE), is a system for giving electrical signals to a semiconductor device to compare output signals against expected values for the purpose of testing if the device works as specified in its design specifications.
Simple, get the schematic of the vertical IC and find out the supply voltage (VCC) pin. However, once you have identified the pin now turn On the power and place your red probe to the VCC pin and black probe to cold ground. Read the voltage and if it is good then perform the waveform test which I don’t cover in this article.
Hi, I’m a Blogger & Web-Developer.
Done B.tech from Dharmsinh Desai University, Nadiad