Definition of Adjectives
An adjective is a describing word that qualifies a noun or a pronoun.
It shows the quality and quantity of noun/pronoun.
In simple words, the words that add to the meaning of a noun/ a pronoun are adjectives.
For example, Rishabh is a dull boy.
In the above sentence, ‘dull’ shows what kind of boy Rishabh is (i.e. It qualifies Rishabh)
Things you can learn with the help of this Blog
- Adjective of quality
- Adjectives of quantity
- Adjective of number
- Proper Adjective
- Demonstrative Adjective
- Distributive Adjective
- Interrogative Adjective
- Possessive Adjective
- Emphasising Adjective
- Relative Adjective
- Exclamatory Adjective
- Degree of Adjectives
- Correct Usage of Adjectives
- Exercise of Adjective
Adjective of Quality
Adjectives off quality show the quality and kind of a person or thing. For Example.
Ritu is a beautiful girl Rajasthan is a large city
An adjective can be used before a noun. (attributive use)
For example, Ashoka was a great king.
In the above example, adjective (great) has been used attributively.
Adjective can also used after verb. (Predicative use)
For example, Ravi is smart.
In the above example, adjective (smart) has been used predicatively.
Note: Some adjectives like sleep, awake, afraid, ashamed, alike, alone etc. are used only predicatively.
For Example, Ram is afraid. Sita and Gita are alike.
Adjective of Quantity
Adjectives of quantity are used to denote the quantity of nouns or pronouns.
For Example, Some, all, any, enough, much etc.
For Example, Give him some milk.
Uses of adjectives of quantity.
Some is used in affirmative sentences before uncountable nouns.
For Ex – I have some oil.
Any is used in negative sentences before plural countable nouns.
For Ex – He does not have any problems.
Many is used for countable nouns whereas much is used for uncountable nouns.
- I have many works to do (wrong)
- I have much work to do (correct)
Adjective of Number
They are the Adjective that shows the number of nouns or pronouns is called adjective of number.
They are further classified into two types:
The definite is further classified into 3 parts
Definite Numerals: These are used to denote an exact number. For Example. One car, second boy, first row, etc. They can again be divided into two parts.
Ordinals: Definite Adjectives that show the order in which a person or thing stands are called ordinal adjectives.
For Ex – The first boy of this row is Raj.
Cardinals: Definite Adjectives which show the number of nouns are called cardinal adjectives
For Ex – I have seven pens Shashank has three sisters.
Indefinite Adjectives: Adjectives than do not denote an exact number or order are called Indefinite Adjectives.
For Ex – Few girls have come. He has several books.
Adjectives which are formed from proper nouns are called proper Adjectives.
For Ex – Gandhian Philosophy Indian Economy
Adjectives that point out which person or thing is being talked about are called demonstrative adjectives. For example.
- That pen is yours.
- This boy is fatter than you.
- These teams have qualified for the finals.
- Those trees are quite tall.
Note: When demonstrative words like this, that, these or those precede a noun, they are known as demonstrative adjectives” whereas if these words are followed by a verb, they are called ‘demonstrative pronouns’.
For Ex – This is my book.
This book is mine.
Note: The number of a demonstrative adjective and the noun qualified by it must be the same.
- These kinds of Necklace is expensive (wrong)
- This kind of Necklace is expensive (correct)
Distributive Adjectives are those adjectives that are used to refer to members of a group as individuals. For example.
Each student has passed.
Note: Each, every, either or neither can be used both as an adjective (when place before a noun) and as a pronoun (when followed by some other word).
- Each boy has come.
- Each of the boys has come.
When Interrogative Pronouns (what/ which/whose) are followed by a noun, then they are said to be Interrogative Adjectives.
- What kind of man are you?
- Which car is yours?
Adjectives formed from possessive pronoun are called Possessive Adjectives.
For Ex– My book has been lost Your father is coming.
Adjectives which are used to emphasize a noun are called Emphasizing Adjectives.
For Ex – I cooked it with my own hands. Emphasizing adjective
When Relative Pronouns which and what are used as adjectives, they are called relative adjectives.
For Ex – He was injured, which fact
Sometimes ‘what’ is used in exclamatory sentences, such type of usage makes ‘what’ an exclamatory adjective. For Ex – What a beautiful painting! What an idea!
Degree of Adjectives
Look at the following sentences
- Ravi is a tall boy.
- Ram is taller than Rakesh.
- Ravi is the tallest boy of his class.
In the first sentence, ‘tall’ denotes the quality of Ravi and is therefore an adjective in “positive degree”.
In the second sentence, ‘taller’ denotes the comparison of a quality of Ravi with that of Rakesh and is therefore an adjective in ‘comparative degree’.
And, in the third sentence, ‘tallest’ denotes the highest degree of quality and is therefore an adjectives in ‘Superlative Degree’.
Hence, adjectives have three types of degree:
1. Positive Degree (when no comparison is made)
2. Comparative Degree (when two things or set of things are compared)
3. Superlative Degree (To denote the highest degree of quality).
Ways to Change Positive In To Comparative And Superlative Degree.
Rule 1: To change an adjective into comparative degree ‘er’ is added to the positive degree and ‘est’ is added to change it into superlative degree.
Rule 2: If ‘e’ is present at the end of a positive degree, ‘r’ is added to change it into a comparative degree and ‘st’ to change it into a superlative degree.
Rule 3: If the positive degree ends in a consonant and a short vowel comes before it, the last consonant is doubled and then ‘er’ and ‘est’ are added to change it into comparative and superlative degree respectively.
Rule 4: When a positive degree ends in ‘y’ and a consonant is present before ‘y’, the ‘y’ is converted into ‘i’, and then ‘er’ and ‘est’ are added respectively.
Note: If a vowel is present before ‘y’, only ‘er’ and ‘est’ should be added.
Rule 5: Adjectives that are of more than two syllables, are changed to a comparative and superlative degree by adding more and most respectively.
|Beautiful||more beautiful||most beautiful|
|Courageous||more courageous||most courageous|
|Intelligent||more intelligent||most intelligent|
|Pleasant||more pleasant||most pleasant|
Correct Usage of Adjectives
Positive degree of adjective is use in between ‘as ……… as’ and ‘so ……… as’
- She is as fair as her sister.
- He played as good as he could.
When one is to be chosen out of two, we use a comparative degree followed by ‘of’ and preceded by ‘the’. But, when one is to be chosen out of more than two, a superlative degree is used with ‘of’ placed immediately after and ‘the’ placed immediately before the superlative degree. For Example.
- She is the prettiest of two sisters (wrong)
- She is the prettier of two sisters(correct).
- He is the strongest of all the wrestlers
Following structure must be followed when two qualities of a noun are being compared. ‘Sub + verb + more + positive degree + than + positive degree”
For Ex – He is taller than falter (wrong).
He is more tall than fat. (correct)
Some comparative adjectives are followed by ‘to’ and not ‘than’. Some of them are Superior, inferior, senior, junior, prior, anterior, posterior, preferable etc.”
For Ex – He is junior to me.
Tea is more preferable to coffee.
If two adjectives are joined by a conjunction, they should be in same degree.
For Ex – My house is bigger and better than yours Ashish is the richest and kindest person of this town.
Hyphenated adjectives are never used in plural form.
For Ex – I gave him three ten-rupees notes. (wrong) I gave him three ten – rupee notes. (correct)
All the Possessive adjectives must be placed after ‘All’ and ‘Both’ and not before them.
Example: Both his brothers have failed All my friends have reached there.
And for comparing one with all the others of same quality, ‘any other’ (for singular) and ‘all others’ (for plurals) are used.
For Ex – She is more intelligent than any other student in the class She is more intelligent than all other students in the class.
Both ‘as ……… as’ and ‘then’ are used when we use positive and comparative degree of an adjective together.
For Ex – She is as good as if not better than you.
Some adjectives are not used in comparative or superlative degree. Some of those adjectives are ‘interior’, ‘exterior’, ‘complete’, ‘perfect’, ‘final’, ‘last’, ‘unique’, ‘absolute’, ‘impossible’, ‘supreme’, etc.
For Ex – This is more superior than that (wrong) This is superior than that (correct)
Some adjectives are never used in comparative degree. They are always used in only positive and superlative degree.
|Northern Top Eastern||Northernmost Topmost Easternmost|
Some Confusing Adjectives
Farther and further
Farther means ‘at, to, or by a greater distance’. It’s used as comparative of far. For Ex – My house is at the farther end of the street. Further means ‘additional’. For Ex – For further information contact, contact me.
Last and Latest
Last means “after all others in time or order”. It refers to position. For Ex – Lord Mountbatten was the last viceroy of India Latest means ‘of recent date’. It refers to time. For Ex – I bought the latest mobile phone.
Elder (Eldest)/older (oldest)
Elder (Eldest) means ‘of earlier birth’. It is use only for persons and is confine to members of the same family.
For Ex – Ramesh is my elder brother Older (oldest) means ‘advanced in years’. It can be use for both person and thing.
Shivam is older than tina.
Hinduism is the oldest religion of the world.
Nearest and Next: ‘Nearest’ means ‘not for distant in time or space, or degree or circumstances.” It denotes distance.
For Ex – Which is the nearest shopping mall?
‘Next’ means ‘immediately following in time or ‘order’. It denotes position.
For Ex – Virat Kohli will be the next captain of Indian Cricket Team.
Later and Latter: Later means ‘at a subsequent time or stage’. For Ex – She will ask him ‘later’. Latter means ‘second of the two things or persons’
For Ex – The latter innings of the ODI was quite interesting. Note: ‘Farmer’ is opposite of letter.
Fewer and Less: Both fewer and less means ‘of small quantity or numbers. Fewer use for countable nouns while less use for uncountable nouns.
For Ex – No fewer than 20 people died in the plane crash. No less than half of the work has been completed.
Little / a little / the little: ’Little’ means ‘limited or below average (hardly any)’ It has a negative meaning.
For Ex – There is little hope of his survival. ’A little’ means ‘somewhat (though not much)’ It has a positive meaning. This is used in the context of ‘some’. For Ex – A little awareness would have saved his life. ’The little’ means ‘not much but all of that much available’ For Ex – He drank off the little water he had.
Note: ‘Few/a few/the few’ and ‘little/a little/the little’ have same meaning. Only difference being that ‘little/a little/the little’ are use for uncountable nouns, while ‘few/a few/ the few’ are use for countable noun.
A few (some) members are absent.
The few (Not many, but all there are)
Friends he had were all very helpful.
Note: Few is used with plural nouns.
If adjective of shape, size, colour, origin etc. come together in a single sentence, then the order of adjective should be as follows. Opinion>Size>Age>Shape>Colour>Origin>Material>Purpose
For Ex –I bought a big black leather bag for the summer camp. Size colour Material.
Exercise of Adjective
- Small cars are more economical than big …………
- I bought …………… mangoes.
- ………….. people have car.
- Give me ……… time to decide the matter.
- It is a work of ………. Months.
- He will come back in ……………. Days.
- I have ……… influence in the political field now.
- There is …………. Hope of his recovery, he is very serious.
- Mr Sharma lives ………… to Ram house.
- Radhika will speak ……… to Sarla.
Answers of The Adjective Exercise
- A few
- A little
- A few
- A few
If you want to learn more about adjectives then you can watch the following video:
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