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Learn Nouns and Its 9 Rules


Definition of Nouns

A noun is a word that functions as the name of some specific thing or set of things, such as living creatures, objects, places, actions, qualities, states of existence, or ideas.

What’s in it for you?

  1. What is noun?
  2. Types of noun
  3. Kind of Noun
  4. Personification
  5. Rules of noun
  6. Exercise for practice

What is Noun

Noun can be anything which has a name. Like name of place, animal and person or a thing like a brand etc.

Example: The Taj Mahal is located in Agra. Here, Agra and Taj Mahal is the name of place and monument respectively.

Types of Noun

Following are the types of noun

  1. Proper
  2. Common
  3. Collective
  4. Material
  5. Abstract

Proper Noun

It is a particular name given to an entity.

Example: Dhaval, Disha, etc.

Common Noun

It is defined as a name given to everything with similar features.

Example: Teacher, Student, Duster, Marker, girl etc.

Collective Noun

It is defined as a name given to a group of common nouns.

Example: A group of girls is called Bevy. Here, girl is a common noun and Bevy is collective noun.

Material Noun

It is defined as a name given to anything which can be processed further.

Example: Board, Pages, Marker etc.

Abstract Noun

It is defined as a name given to anything which cannot be seen or touched but can be felt.

Example: Knowledge, Intelligence etc.

Note: Air can be both abstract or material noun because it can be processed and feel.

Kind of Noun

Nouns can be classified into 2 categories. The first on the Basis of Gender and Second on the basis of number.

On the basis of number, the noun is of two types:

  1. Uncountable
  2. Countable

And countable noun can be further divided into two types.

The first one is Singular and second is Plural, all this is shown with the help of flow diagram below:

Noun of Gender

This is classified into 4 categories:

  1. Masculine: It represents the male. Examples are boy, man, tiger, etc. He is used for all of them.
  2. Feminine: It represents female. Examples are girl, woman, lady, tigress, etc. She is used for all of them.
  3. Common: It represents living beings; it can be both male and female because it can be used for either sex. Examples are Doctor, Students, Principal, Officer, etc. Doctors can be used for both male and female doctors.
  4. Neuter: it represents non-living. For example, chair, table, pen, books, etc.

Common, we use they or he since we prefer masculine gender when we don’t know it.

Neuter, we use it. For example, I saw a baby playing outside. It was wearing a red cap.

Note: child, baby, animal, kid, Infant all of them came in Neutral group as an exception because we can’t tell their gender just by looking at them.


It is a process of treating a non-living as a living thing.

In this, if the non-living thing is showing masculine nature like strength, power, might, violence and strong, etc. then we use He, His, etc for the object like that object is a male. For example,

  1. The ocean roared with all his might.
  2. Death completes his course no one can stop him. Here we use his and him for death because it behaves like a male.

In this, if the non-living is showing feminine nature like love, care, hope, Joy shy, beauty, grace, etc all the positive things under this. For example,

  1. Nature offers her lap to one who seeks it.
  2. The moon has hidden her face behind the cloud. Hear moon is acted like a woman in nature that is why we use her for it.

Note: The earth revolves around the sun in 365 ¼ day. Can you calculate its speed? Here we use its instead of her because remember that the Personification is non-living behaves like a living but earth here does not do such a thing that is why we use its.

Rules of Noun

When proper nouns are treated as common noun.

When we say a name but talking about its features and characteristics, qualities place the before it.

For example:

Arjun is the Sachin Tendulkar of the future. Here Sachin Tendulkar is used to showing quality.

Kalidas is the Shakespeare of India.

Numbers (two, three a, five, etc) + Unit of counting (hundred, thousand, billion, score, dozen) then the unit of counting is always written in singular form.

She bought a dozen of eggs. Here we did not write dozens because a is written before it.

When a number is not present before a unit of counting then we write unit of counting (hundred, dozen etc) in plural form. For Example:

She brought dozens of eggs.

I need millions of rupees.

Some nouns that look plural but singular in form. For example,

Physics, Mathematics, News, Politics, Innings etc.

Politics is a dirty game.

Mathematics is a difficult subject.

Use singular verb with them.

When these nouns like Physics, Mathematics News, Politics, etc are particularised or possessed.

That means when they show possession with words like your, my, her, his, their, its, etc then we should use a plural verb with them. For example:

My mathematics are very weak.

The politics of their city are very corrupt.

The economics of this country are not doing well.

Nouns that are formed using two or more similar things are always used in plural form. For example:

Shoes, Sleeves, Glares, Jeans, Spectacles, Binoculars, Tongs, Scissors etc are always used in plural form.

For making them singular we use A pair of. For example, I need a pair of Jeans.

I gave her a pair of scissors.

Usage of Apostrophe (‘)

It is used to show possession of a noun.

It is used with living beings.

When the word does not end with s we use ‘s. For example, John’s car is black.

But when the word ending with s we use s’. For example, Vikas’ car is black.

Girl’s hostel is wrong and Girls’ hostel is correct.

Do not use (‘) with non-living and the things which are tangible(touchable). For example, the chair’s leg is broken is wrong and the leg of the chair is broken is right.

There are 10 exceptions with which we can use (‘) which are as follow:

  1. Heavenly Body like Sun’s, Mars’ etc.
  2. Personification
  3. Respectable Nouns: we use (‘). For example, the Court’s Duty’s call, etc.
  4. Weight/Day: with this we use (‘). For example, I need five days’ leave. What is the gram’s price?
  5. We can use (‘) with Phrases also. For Example, He lives at a stone’s throw from my place.
  6. Title: (‘) is used with the last word of the title. For example, Shri Narendra Modi, the Prime Minister of India’s car is black.
  7. Joint Possession: use (‘) with the last noun and last noun hold the (‘). For example, Rajiv and Sanjay’s mother is Indira.
  8. When the possession separates use (‘) with all. For example, Arijit’s, Diljit’s, and Ajit’s music are famous among youngsters.
  9. Do not use 2 Apostrophe (‘) together in a sentence. For example, my wife’s secretary’s mother has expired is wrong and the mother of wife wife’s secretary has passed away is right.
  10. When your noun ends with a hissing sound like ss or sh we use (‘) not (‘s). for example, for peace’s sake. I am going to take the Kush’s class.

Note: We should use passed away/ died for living being. And expired for non-living.

Some nouns always remain in plural form. They take a plural verb. These nouns have no singular form. For example:

Assets, alms amends annals, archives, ashes, pants, eyeglasses, species and fangs etc.

Some nouns are always used in the singular. These are uncountable nouns. We should not use A/An with nouns. For example:

Scenery, poetry, furniture, hair, advice, information, bread, baggage, crockery, and luggage, etc.

We cannot pluralize such nouns by adding s or es. For example, It Is incorrect to write sceneries, furniture, hairs.

If hair is used as countable, it can be pluralised. Example, I need two grey hairs.

Exercise for Practice

  1. Her hairs are curly.
  2. Our elders gave us many advices.
  3. I have many work to do.
  4. Sunita has sold all her furnitures.
  5. She gave me informations about this bank.
  6. He got only passing marks.
  7. Ram was true to his words.
  8. Ten miles are a long distance.
  9. Please reply, your’s faithfully.
  10. I go for a two miles walk daily.
  11. She loves either you or I.
  12. One should not hate the poors.
  13. He is sixty years old man.
  14. A five men committee had a three hours meeting yesterday.
  15. There is two ways traffic here, so no problem of traffic blockage.


  1. Her hair is curly.
  2. Our elders have us many pieces of advice.
  3. I have much work to do.
  4. Sunita has sold all her furniture.
  5. She gave me information about this bank.
  6. He got only pass marks.
  7. Ram was true to his word.
  8. Ten miles is a long distance.
  9. Please reply, your faithfully.
  10. I go for a two mile walk daily.
  11. She loves either you or me.
  12. One should not hate the poor.
  13. He is a sixty year old man.
  14. A five man committee had a three hour meeting yesterday.
  15. There is two way traffic here, so no problem of traffic blockage.

 If you want to learn nouns in brief then you can also watch the video given below:

Most of the images are from https://www.kidsworldfun.com/

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