Do you know Mahatma Gandhi? Of course, everybody knows him. But do you know about his full life story? So, let’s find Mahatma Gandhi Biography in detail in this blog.
WHAT’S IN HERE FOR YOU ?
- WHO IS MAHATMA GANDHI ?
- EARLY LIFE OF MAHATMA GANDHI.
- MAHATMA GANDHI IN SOUTH AFRICA.
- MAHATMA GANDHI’S ARRIVAL IN INDIA AND HIS EARLY MOVEMENTS
- MAJOR MOVEMENTS BY MAHATMA GANDHI IN INDIA
- DEATH OF MAHATMA GANDHI
WHO IS MAHATMA GANDHI ?
Mohandas Karamchand Gandhi also known by name of Mahatma Gandhi was an Indian lawyer and political activist who led India to its independence. Thereby also known as the father of nation India or locally called Bapu.
Firstly Gandhi is famously known for the philosophy of Non-violence. Secondly, He spent 20 years in South Africa to fight for human rights before getting active in India.
EARLY LIFE OF MAHATMA GANDHI
MK Gandhi was born on 2nd October of 1869 at Porbandar city, which is certainly now in today’s state of Gujarat.
Above all, Karamchand Gandhi was a minister of the state at that time. To clarify, Karamchand Gandhi was the father of Mohandas Gandhi. Then he got married at an early age of 13 with Kasturba of age 14.
Then at the age of 19, he left his home for studying law in London. He then started a law practice in Bombay after returning to India but it was not successful.
Then Mahatma Gandhi has gone to Durban, South Africa with his wife and children in relation to a case involving his client Dada Abdullah.
MAHATMA GANDHI IN SOUTH AFRICA
In South Africa, he witnessed the ugly face of white racism for instance when he was moving from Durban to Pretoria by a first-class compartment from where he was thrown out as a white man was not ready to share the compartment with him. He then decided to stay in South Africa to subsequently organize the Indian workers to enable them to fight for their rights.
STARTING PHASE OF STRUGGLE (1894-1906):
During this phase, Mahatma Gandhi was dependent on sending petitions to authorities hoping that once they were informed steps would be taken once they were informed as Indians were after all British subjects. To unite Indians he set up INDIAN NATAL CONGRESS and also started a newspaper called INDIAN OPINION. Then To fight discrimination against Indians in South Africa was their aim.
PHASE OF NON-VIOLENT RESISTANCE(1906-1914):
In other words satyagrahas or civil disobedience were involved in this phase.
1.SATYAGRAHA AGAINST REGISTRATION CERTIFICATES (1906):
In South Africa, it was made compulsory for all Indians to carry all the times the certificate of registration with thumbprints. But The Indians under Mahatma Gandhi retaliated against this by publicly burning their certificates.
2.CAMPAIGN AGAINST RESTRICTION ON INDIAN MIGRATION:
Indians’ migration was restricted due to a new bill. But this law was unfollowed by Indians by crossing the provinces and by refusing to produce licenses.
3. SETTING UP OF TOLSTOY FARM:
The Tolstoy Farm was meant to house the families of satyagrahis and therefore to give them a way to sustain themselves.
4.CAMPAIGN AGAINST POLL TAX & INVALIDATION OF INDIAN MARRIAGES:
A heavy tax of 3 pounds was imposed on ex-contractual Indians. Also, a supreme court order invalidated all marriages not conducted according to Christian rites. The Indians protested by illegally migrating from Natal to Transvaal in addition Miners and coworkers went on Strike.
Eventually, through a series of negotiations, the government of South Africa Considered the major Indian demands in a sympathetic manner.
By January 1915 Mahatma Gandhiji finally returned to India.
MAHATMA GANDHI’S ARRIVAL IN INDIA AND INITIAL MOVEMENTS
After his return from South Africa then In 1915, Gandhi established the Sabarmati Ashram in Gujarat and on his mentor Gopal Krishna Gokhale ‘ s advice he embarked on a
journey to discover India then.
Dusing a session of Congress in Lucknow 1916 Gandhi met Raj Kumar Shukla who certainly requested him to go and see the miseries of Indigo farmers in Champaran.
In the Champaran district of Bihar, the Britishers had imposed a system called tin Kathia Under this system the farmers were forced to grow indigo in three out of twenty parts of their land due to which the farmer was poorly compensated for their indigo crops and if they refused to plant indigo they have to face heavy taxation.
As a result, the reduced production of much – needed food crops and exclusive indigo farming had led to suffering for farmers.
So when news of Gandhi s arrival in Champaran spread like wildfire a large crowd of farmers come to receive him but he was then served by a notice with orders to leave Champaran by next train.
Mahatma Gandhi refused and the police arrested him then, but with the kind of support, Gandhi was receiving. The govt. fearing unrest then released him.
Gandhi then visited many villages and recorded statements of approximately eight thousand farmers to understand their issues and the causes.
Realizing Gandhi’s Strength the govt. made him a member of an inquiry committee to look into excesses committed by landlords and after the committee submitted it’s report the exploitative tin Kathia system was finally abolished.
MOVEMENT IN AHMEDABAD:
Ahmedabad was then a growing Industrial town of the 20th century. In March 1918, then there was a situation of conflict between Mill owners and workers who were hit by Plague.
The workers wanted a fifty percent wage hike but Mill owners were not ready to give more than 20 %. At this point, Gandhi was invited by Mill owners to settle the dispute
Bad Gandhi found that then workers should be given more hike in wages.
Hence Under the leadership of Gandhi, there was a strike in the mill. In which Gandhi used the weapon of the Hunger strike which lasted for 3 days so Then the result was that strike was successful and the workers got a 35 % wage hike.
In 1918, Gandhi learned that peasants of the kheda district were also in extreme distress. Due to the failure of crops and their appeals for remission (not collecting tax during crop failure) were being ignored by the government.
Gandhi with other leaders then found that govt. Should not collect text and he started kheda satyagraha As a result the government agreed to collect tax only from those farmers who were able to pay.
MAJOR MOVEMENTS BY MAHATMA GANDHI IN INDIA
KHILAFAT AND NON-COOPERATION MOVEMENT :
After World War I, the Ottoman Empire was defeated and due to which Turkey was under British govt. The Sultan of Turkey was considered as a religious leader by Muslims all over the world and game him the title of Khalifa or Caliphate therefore After war British govt. removed Khalifa from power and took his territories.
Due to this all Muslims including Indian Muslims were agitated. But Gandhiji noticed this opportunity to include Indian Muslims in the Indian national movement and start khilafat movement for them.
But leaders of Indian National Congress such as Tilak refused to this Saying that we shouldn’t interfere in religious matters of Muslims but Gandhiji managed to start this movement and All India khilafat committee was formed by Mohd Ali & Shaukat Ali (Ali brothers).
Hence In 1920, All India khilafat committee started the Non-Cooperation Movement. Then Non-Cooperation Movement was approved in the Calcutta session of 1920 and was endorsed in Nagpur Session of 1920.
Under this movement there then was Boycott of govt. school, college, courts, etc, promotion of Khadi, Prohibition of Alcohol, Not to practice untouchability. Hence this was good.
CHAURI CHAURA INCIDENT:
This movement was withdrawn by Gandhiji in 1922 because of violence that occurred in Chauri Chaura incident.
Chauri Chaura was a place in Gorakhpur, UP where people were protesting against prices & sell of Liquor due to which leading a clash between police & people by which approximately twenty-two policemen and three civilians were dead.
CIVIL DISOBEDIENCE MOVEMENT:
Gandhiji gave the British govt. his 11 demands & told to either fulfill to the demands or be prepared for another movement. So The ultimatum for the fulfillment of demands was
31 January 1930. in case ,Some of these important demands were:
– Reduction in the army expenses
– Release all the Political Prisoners
– Reduce taxes on the land
– Abolish the salt law and salt monopoly of the govt
The govt. didn’t respond to any of the demands till February 1930.
Then Gandhi decided to take salt as the highlighted issue of his new movement we know as Dandi March (1930). He along with his 78 members from Sabarmati Ashram traveled across villages of Gujarat and reached the coast of Dandi, where he holded the salt in his hand and therefore violated the salt law by collecting the salt.
After this Gandhiji was arrested due to which led to nationwide agitation of people against govt. As a result, India received the invitation for the 1st Round table conference which Gandhi did not attend.
But Gandhi agreed to attend the second round table conference of 1931. and in this Gandhi Irwin fact was concluded. The civil disobedience movement continued up to 1934 & hence it was suspended in that year.
QUIT INDIA MOVEMENT:
After the failure of the Cripps mission, Gandhiji and nationalist leaders realized that the War Between the British and Japan will affect India and then Japan was already threatening to attack on India as it was British territory.
Gandhiji thought that if Japan attacked Indian then Tomorrow India would get slaves under Japan so Gandhi decided to remove the root of evil the Britishers and started quit India Movement.
Moreover, there were rising prices of commodities in India which was another reason to get rid of the British as soon as possible.
Therefore The People responded actually in the movement, all Government Symbols were demolished, govt institutions were captured Railway lines & telephonic lines were cut.
But the British responded violently killing tens of thousands of People and opposing violence by the government. Gandhiji started his fast until death and during this fast Gandhiji gave the slogan of Do or Die.
This movement was successful as every section of India whether child, woman laborer, peasant, civil servant participated and the Indians who were loyal to Britishers until now also stated telling the British to quit India.
Hence the British realize after this movement that now they can no longer suppress India & rule over them and they have to leave India.
DEATH OF MAHATMA GANDHI
Gandhiji was then assassinated on 30th January 1948 by Nathuram Godse using firearms according to the source.
Hence in conclusion we conclude that non-violence and determination can make us achieve anything we want provided it should be the truth and our right.
Similarly many people fought for their freedom after getting inspired from him. Subsequently still many people take inspiration from him.
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By gunshot fired by Nathuram Godse.
2 October 1869
Porbandar ( Gujarat)
In the compound of Birla house, New Delhi