Do you know Rabindranath Tagore? Yes, of course, you would have heard of him after all he is the pride of India. Do you want to know about Rabindranath Tagore Biography in detail? So let’s dive in.
TABLE OF CONTENTS:
- WHO WAS RABINDRANATH TAGORE?
- RABINDRANATH TAGORE’S EARLY LIFE AND FAMILY BACKGROUND
- RABINDRANATH TAGORE’S EARLY WORKS
- SHANTINIKETAN – DREAM PROJECT OF RABINDRANATH TAGORE
- RABINDRANATH TAGORE PHILOSOPHY
- SORROWFUL YEARS OF RABINDRANATH TAGORE’S LIFE
- LATER YEARS OF RABINDRANATH TAGORE
- GITANJALI – MASTERPIECE OF RABINDRANATH TAGORE
- DEATH OF RABINDRANATH TAGORE
WHO WAS RABINDRANATH TAGORE ?
Rabindranath Tagore is one of the greatest personalities and pride of India. He has achieved heights of success by winning the prestigious award of Nobel prize in literature for writing Gitanjali in 1913.
Tagore has done great works in the field of paintings, poems, and plays. He is also the writer of India’s national anthem “ Jana Gana Mana”.
RABINDRANATH TAGORE’S EARLY LIFE AND FAMILY BACKGROUND
Rabindranath Tagore was born in a rich family on 7 May 1861 in the state of Bengal. He was the grandson of Dwarka Nath Tagore and son of Debendra Nath Tagore.
Dwarka Nath Tagore was a very big businessman and very rich living a lavish life but Debendra Nath Tagore was a spiritual person. Rabindra’s Mother’s name was Sarada Devi.
Sarada was dead early and rabindra was raised mostly by servants.
His brothers and sisters were very intelligent. One of Rabindra brothers Satyendra Nath Tagore was the first Indian to get selected in all-European Indian civil service. His oldest brother Dwijendra Nath Tagore was a philosopher and poet, another brother jyotirlinga Nath Tagore was a musician. His sister Swarnakumari was first to start editing journals in India.
Tagore did his schooling and took his education at his home only. Hemendra Nath Tagore mostly tutored his brother Rabindra. He taught his mostly everything including swimming, arts, mathematics, science, and social science.
RABINDRANATH TAGORE’S EARLY WORKS
Rabindra’s father wanted Rabindra to become a barrister so Rabindranath was sent to England with Satyendra Nath Tagore for studies in 1878. But he returned in 1880 without completing his studies after returning he started his artistic works.
He started publishing his works in his brother Dwijendra Nath Tagore’s magazine called “Bharati”. An imaginative character called Bhanu Singh Thakur was common to all of his works. Rabindra was also writing plays and was doing the characters on the stage, “Valmiki Pratibha” and “ Kaal Mryigaya” were very impressive. They were played in his house and the lead role was also played by himself.
In 1882, Rabindra published a verse play called “Rudra Chakra” and a collection of poems called “Sandhya Sangeet”.
Both works were liked and praised by Bankim Chandra Chatterjee, a famous Bengali writer, poet, and journalist who composed India’s National song “Vande Mataram”.
Then in 1883 Rabindra was married to Mrinalini Devi of 10 years old. In 1884 his sister in law, the wife of Jyotindranath Tagore committed suicide, most people believe that she was in love with Rabindra Nath Tagore and she was in deep shock due to marriage of Rabindra Nath Tagore. During 1884-1890 Tagore continues his literary works.
On 22 August 1890 Rabindra Nath Tagore again decided to go to England, France, and Italy with his brother Satyendra Nath Tagore, this time his aim was to learn and study literature.
In 1890 Tagore started managing his large ancestral empire in Shelaidaha. Rabindra’s most beautiful and deepest part of life was spent there and his famous verse play ‘Chitrangadha’ was written in shelaidaha. Rabindra also used to help poor peasants and farmers living there. In 1891, he started a Bengali monthly magazine named as ‘Sadhna’.
RABINDRANATH TAGORE PHILOSOPHY
Rabindra Nath Tagore was a big countryman and his philosophy was to spread love. He received the Knighthood title of England after receiving the Nobel prize in literature for writing Gitanjali in 1913 but when sadistic Jallianwala Bagh Massacre occurred in 1919 then he decides to return the Knighthood title to England by writing a polite letter to Viceroy.
Tagore used to work, live and solve problems of poor people while living in Shelaidaha, he used to sleep on boats between those people. He was against the partition of Bengal and he used to criticize the government in his newspaper writings.
At that time, the Plague was spread all over the country and Rabindranath Tagore did his best in making the arrangements to help the victims. He used to oppose wars and considered love and humanity as the greatest weapons to end the war.
SHANTINIKETAN – DREAM PROJECT OF RABINDRANATH TAGORE
For a long time Rabindranath Tagore wanted to open an educational institution that was based on ancient Indian teachings and practices.
He believed that education should be given in-between nature, not in closed classes, students should feel connected in with nature to take maximum learnings. Shantiniketan was a town in Bengal where Rabindranath Tagore established Vishwa Bharati University in 1901 and he called that place as ‘abode of the god’.
Now finally a traditional institute based on ancient Indian education was started but to run the school funds were needed so Rabindranath Tagore sold the copyrights of his books and his inherited house. His wife also contributed by selling her gold wedding ornaments.
Later he also contributed his Nobel prize award money to this cause. He also used to perform plays in various parts of the world to arrange fundings. In Shantiniketan, everything was taught including yoga, meditation, religious activities, Sanskrit, arts.
SORROWFUL YEARS OF RABINDRANATH TAGORE’S LIFE
1902 to 1907 are considered as the saddest years of Rabindranath Tagore’s life, he lost many close and dear peoples during these years. In 1902 he lost his wife’s life, then in 1905 he lost his daughte. And then in 1907, he lost his father and his youngest son.
In these years he became very serious towards his works. He wrote a set of poems in the memory of his wife under the name ‘Smaran’. He also wrote his famous novels ‘Chokher Bali’ and ‘Gora’ in 1903 and 1906 respectively.
Now during these times, there was the British government trying to divide Bengal state based on religion as East Bengal and West Bengal (but there official statement was that they did this as the state too big to govern).
Rabindra Nath Tagore‘s philosophy was to spread love. In 1905 when Lord Curzon wanted to divide Bengal on the basis of religion at that time he started tying of Raksha Bandhan between Hindus and Muslims to show love and unity of Indians.
Also, many movements like the swadeshi movement were started at this time but Rabindra Nath Tagore also criticized the militant activities against the government as he believed in non-violence.
LATER YEARS OF RABINDRANATH TAGORE
In 1908 Rabindra Nath Tagore was selected as the president of the Provincial Political Conference held in the pabna district of Bengal. This conference was important as during this ahead of 1907 time freedom movements were raising and Congress was divided into moderates and extremists.
During this period Tagore gave many speeches for religious unity, education, upliftment, and cleanliness. On the 27th annual session of the Indian National Congress held at Calcutta Jana Gana Mana written by Rabindra Nath Tagore was sung for the first time. Which later became the national anthem of India officially on 24th January 1950.
Finally, in 1912 he started world traveling from Europe to spread his ways of teachings to the western world.
On 22nd February 1915, Mahatma Gandhi and wife Kasturba Bai visited Shantiniketan to meet Rabindranath Tagore. But Tagore was not available so they visited again on 6th March to meet him again.
They both were having different ideologies but the same goals, Rabindranath was a patriotic person but Mahatma Gandhi was a complete Nationalist. Rabindranath Tagore also didn’t participate in Gandhiji’s non-cooperation movement. But they both used to admire each other.
Rabindranath Tagore again went on world voyage between 1920-1921 to influence the world with his amazing speeches and plays. Till 1932 he traveled more than thirty countries of five continents. He was doing this mostly for arranging funds for Vishvbharati, Gandhiji felt bad for him as now Rabindra Nath Tagore was old. So Gandhiji arranged sixty thousand rupees for him by asking one of his rich followers.
Rabindra also got one of his greatest achievements when offered Oxford Doctorate on 7th august 1940.
GITANJALI – MASTERPIECE OF RABINDRANATH TAGORE
In 1912 Gitanjali was published in London for which Rabindra Nath Tagore was awarded with Nobel Prize in 1913. Gitanjali based on medieval Indian Lyrics of devotion was his first book of an English translation of his poems.
The book consisted of one hundred and three poems. In London, the famous English Poet W.B. Yeats read Tagore’s poems and was completely amazed by his work. Many foreign writers considered as the best literary work ever produced.
On return to India in 1913 Rabindra Nath Tagore was heavily welcomed by Indians. For this work, Rabindra was also awarded with Knighthood title of England on 3rd June 1915.
Tagore was also honored by the degree of Doctor Of Literature by Calcutta University.
DEATH OF RABINDRANATH TAGORE
On 7th August 1941, he took his final breathes at the age of eighty. Thousands of people paid him tribute.
Rabindranath Tagore was a great Hindi writer and was a great nationalist.
Although his ideologies differed from mahatma Gandhi but he always spread India’s culture in the world.
ALSO READ ABOUT:
FAQs related to Rabindranath Tagore
Renuka Tagore, Meena Tagore, Madhurilata Tagore
7 May 1861
7th August 1941
Jorasanko Thakurbari, Kolkata