From the early age of civilization stones have been used which is a naturally available building material. It is available in various forms of rocks which is cut and shaped according to the requirement and used as building blocks.
By blasting of rocks it is available in the form of broken pieces, slabs, etc.
This material is widely used in the construction of temples and large palaces all over the world. Also several places of medieval age is famous for stone buildings all over the world.
So in this blog you are going to know the stones which is widely used since ancient times in detail along with importance.
Different topic related to it are explained below:
- Various Uses In Construction
- Requirements Of Stones
- Types Of Stones
- Test For The Stones
- Stonework Used In Construction Work
Various Uses In Construction
- They are used in bed blocks, columns, arches, foundations, cornices, columns, etc.
- Also used where features of ornamental type should be given.
- They are used in the abutment of bridges and also in dams.
- They are used for retaining soil in retaining wall
- Also used in the construction of roads.
- They are used in railways as ballast.
Requirements Of Stone
They may be crystalline or amorphous. Unstratified rocks are good as building stones. Stratified rocks are liable to get separated along the planes of the strata and hence, require to be placed properly.
Light-colored stone generally used in comparison to dark shades. Red and brown colored sedimentary rocks are liable to gradual disintegration.
For domes and arches stone which is light in weight are used. A heavy stone is compact with very little porosity which contributes to structural stability.
(4) Fineness of Grains
Non-crystalline stones are difficult to handle and are liable to be disintegrated therefore this type of grains are used in carving and molding and carving
Weathering effects, loads, etc must resist. It must be able to sustain against alternate cooling and heating at certain locations.
A stone for building work should have a minimum of 100 N/mm2crushing strength. Igneous rocks have 100 to 350 N/mm2 crushing strength.
Sedimentary rocks have low crushing strength. The compressive strength of metamorphic rocks is highest.
Theyshould have good resistance against wear and tear.
(8) Facility of Working and Dressing
They easy to cut are used for building so that various required size can be obtained. It should be possible to dress, carve and mold the stones.
Types of Stones
A process in which stone is been carried out from the bed of natural rocks is termes as quarrying.
The exposed surface of natural rocks is also termed as natural rocks. Thus for various purposes of engineering above obtained stones are used.
The following are the types of stones: Basalt, trap, chalk, gneiss, granite, kankar, laterite, limestone, marble, quartzite, sandstone, slate, etc.
They are obtained from various rocks. The following are the types of rocks that are mentioned below.
Rocks may be classified on the basis of geological formation
- Igneous rocks
- Sedimentary rocks
- Metamorphic rocks
Rocks may be classified on the basis of their general structure as
Rocks may be classified on the basis of their chemical composition as
Mosaic tiles and terrazzo are artificial stones.
- They are not easily affected weathering action did not affect them as they are hard and durable
- Compacted crystalline structure is present in marble and quartzite
- Sandstone and gneiss have a granular crystalline structure which is the same in size and held together by some binding materials.
- The wide range of minerals present in igneous.Various minerals having a wide range of different distinctive characteristics present in various minerals.
Similarly if you want know more about Aggregates click here.
Test For The Stones
Following are such tests for it:
|Acid test||Resistance to acids and chemicals|
|Attrition test||Rate of wear of stones.|
|Crushing test||compressive strength|
|Freezing and thawing test||Effect of wind, sun rays, rain etc.|
|Hardness test||To determine hardness|
|Impact test||To determine toughness|
|Microscopic test||Grain size, texture, mineral constitutions, existence of pores, fissures, veins and shakes|
|Smith’s test||For presence of soluble matter|
It is the specialty of building the structures in stones. In certain pieces of the nation, building stones are bounteously accessible in nature. When they are sliced and dressed in the best possible way to give a conservative material to the development of different structures.
Uses of Stone Masonry
Stone masonry construction is used in
- Building foundations, dams
- Piers, columns, building walls, lighthouses, and architectural structures.
- Railway ballast
- Building monumental structures
- Roofs, floors, paving works
- Domes, arches, lintels, etc.
Tools Required for Dressing of Stones
- Mason hammer
- Club hammer
- Spalling hammer
- Scabling hammer
- Plane chisel
- Drafting chisel
- Bloster chisel
- Point chisel
- Chisel for soft stone
Classification of Stone Masonry
A) Rubble Masonry
- Coursed rubble masonry
- Random rubble masonry
- Uncoursed rubble masonry.
- Dry rubble masonry
- Polygonal rubble masonry
- Flint rubble masonry
B) Ashlar Masonry
- Ashlar fine
- Rough tooled ashlar
- Ashlar quarry faced
- Chamfered ashlar
- Ashlar block in course
- Facing ashlar
- Rubble Masonry
The uneven sizes are preferred in rubble masonry. They are broken and shaped in suitable size by hammer or take-in use in same form as obtained from the quarry
- Ashlar Masonry
This masonry has a good quality finely-chisel dressed beds, faces, and sides of stones. The arrangement of stone should be with good bond and the 3mm thickness should be the maximum for mortar joints. Normally the uniform height should be kept for all the courses, but it should not be less than 30cm.
To obtain maximum strength to stonework in stone masonry all sedimentary stones natural bed directions should be perpendicular to pressure direction. Stones wreck without problems alongside those natural beds.
This material behaves unfounded in the case of string guides, cornices, etc. as a result; they need to be placed with the route of natural beds as vertical. In the case of cornerstones, adopt stones without natural beds.
They have to be placed in partitions with the path of their natural beds as horizontal.
Constructing stones are received from rocks. Properties of rocks determine properties of stones
Stonework Used In Construction Work
The following uses conclude the importance of stones as a construction material
|Name of rock||Type of rock||Uses|
|Granite||Igneous||For steps, facing walls, floors, kitchens, etc.|
|Basalt||Igneous||For foundation work, as road metal, as ingredient of concrete.|
|Gneiss||Metamorphic||For rough masonry work|
|Laterite||Metamorphic||For masonry work|
|Limestone||Sedimentary||In footing, paving and flooring|
|Marble||Metamorphic||For ornamental work, facing work, flooring, kitchen platform|
|Sandstone||Sedimentary||For facing work, floors, walls, ornamental work|
|Slate||Metamorphic||For roofs and sills.|
The GST slab of 5% comes under building stones in India.
The Basalt stones are used in road construction.
Yes, they are porous as they have tiny little pores which seen only
under a microscope which results in permeability factor.