To understand the types of plastic lets understand about plastic. Plastic Is a synthetic or semi-synthetic organic compound of very high molecular mass. As a result, it can mold into a solid part with many sizes and shapes. Because of its many uses, we develop many types of plastic.
In fact, the most amazing thing about plastic is electrically resistant, heat resistant, chemically stable, good moldability, rigid, moisture, and weather resistance, Undoubtedly that is the main reason plastic is common in most industries
What’s In It For Me?
- Types Of Plastic
- Classification Of Plastic
- Biodegradable Plastic
- Why Biodegradable Plastic?
- Different Types of Biodegradable Plastic
Types of Plastics
Firstly there are two major Types of plastics Thermoplastics, Thermosets.
Thermoplastics are those, which once it use, and then it modified with the help of heat and can be reshaped regularly.
Until it loses its property, For example, Polyethylene, Polypropylene, Polyvinylchloride, Polystyrene, Polyamides, Polyesters, and Polyurethanes.
In addition, High-temperature thermoplastics include polyether like ether ketones, liquid crystalline polymers, Polysulfones, and polyphenylene sulfides.
Clearly commodity plastics value for about 80% of plastics used for medical devices in uses for example labware, tubing, containers, and molded connectors.
Thermoplastics are categorized into amorphous and semicrystalline polymers, After that Amorphous thermoplastics are long-chain molecules that have no order.
In addition, Semicrystalline polymers have short-range order, So it can join together to form ordered, crystalline structures but within amorphous regions.
Hence the amount of adjustment and the amount of crystallinity are defined by the polymers chemical structure. So it determines how well the polymer chains can align with each other.
Semi-crystalline thermoplastics are used to be typically dull compared to amorphous thermoplastics.
Semi-crystalline polymers have better chemical resistance than amorphous thermoplastics.
Because they have a lower amount of amorphous regions that are permeable to chemicals and solvents.
Basically thermosets are created when two or more components chemically react with each other. In addition under ambient conditions and when induced by radiation heat to form a highly cross-linked network.
Most Importantly the formation of thermosets is an irreversible process. therefore thermosets are typically hard and rigid. Simultaneously Elastomers are used to be loosely cross-linked polymers.
In addition, they have the characteristics of rubber in terms of flexibility and elasticity. For example natural rubber, styrene-butadiene block copolymers, polyisoprene, polybutadiene, ethylene-propylene rubber.
And then silicone elastomers, fluoroelastomers, polyurethane elastomers, and nitrile rubbers.
In fact Poly (ethylene terephthalate) – PET or PETE It is clear, though, and has good gas and moisture barrier properties making it ideal for carbonated beverages, food containers, and life-saving fluid bottles, etc.
Poly (vinyl chloride) –(so-called PVC) or V In 1912 German chemist Fritz Klatte at Griesheim Electron unknowingly made the first PVC
In fact It is an attempt to create uses for large quantities of acetylene gas fuel lamps, But He had reacted acetylene with hydrochloric acid.
Classification Of Plastic
Polyethylene Terephthalate (PET)
Sometimes absorbs smells tastes from the food and drinks stored in them. additionally this type of plastic made from recycled plastic.
Plastic used to make simple home items such as drinks Bottles, medicine jars, rope, clothes, carpet fiber.
High-Density Polyethylene (HDPE)
firstly these types of products are not very safe for food and beverages. HDPE products are generally recyclable.
These products are make from plastic for example containers for milk, motor oil, shampoo and conditioner, Soap bottles, detergents, and bleaches.
In fact It is not safe to use the HDPE bottle actually or as a food and beverage container to have food or drink.
Polyvinyl Chloride (PVC)
It includes Pipes and tiles, plumbing tubes are made by the polyvinyl chloride so-called PVC. This material is toxic so we need to make sure that it could not be in contact with food items.
Low-Density Polyethylene (LDPE)
It’s a lot of Healthy plastic is strong and flexible, So We make cling-film, sandwich bags, squeeze bottles, and plastic market bags are made by Low-Density Polyethylene.
Clearly Polypropylene is powerful generally tolerates high temperatures and its food-grade material. We used it to make meals boxes, margarine bowls, yogurt pots, syrup bottles, prescription bottles, Plastic bottle caps are also made up of PP.
This material is difficult to recycle, And We still use this material for disposable coffee cups, plastic food boxes, and plastic knives the packing foam is making from PS.
It is used to ensure that most types are not plastic the other six codes are defined. for example Polycarbonate and polylactide.
In fact, These types of plastics are hard to recycle. So Polycarbonate is used in baby bottles and small discs, storage containers.
Biodegradable plastics and organisms have the ability to decompose into aerobic or anaerobic conditions besides carbon dioxide, methane, water, biomass, and inorganic compounds.
In fact, Biodegradation is a unique property of some plastic materials, ie in polymers made with these materials.
Additionally, It is a process of decomposition of polymer material under the influence of biotic components.
And then Microorganisms recognize polymers as the source of organic compounds and as the sustaining force.
In other words, biodegradable polymers is their food, and it reduce the plastic pollution
finally it is Under control of extracellular and extracellular proteins, the polymer bears a chemical reaction.
But also that polymer degrades through the process of polymer chain and oxidative elimination. As a result of this process, many different enzymes are affected.
After that molecules enter the cellular metabolic processes generate energy, and convert it into water, carbon dioxide, biomass, and other basic products of biodegradation.
Why Biodegradable Plastic?
These products are non-toxic, and they usually occur in nature and living organisms, So this process converts into synthetic materials.
Mineralization is the process of converting organic matter such as polymer into inorganic material like carbon dioxide.
Biodegradable plastics and organisms are completely decayed under aerobic or anaerobic conditions and carbon dioxide, methane, water, biomass, as well as inorganic compounds.
Biodegradation or biotic degradation is a unique property of some plastic materials, in spite of that polymers made with these materials.
Above all It is a process of decomposition of polymer materials under the influence of bionic elements.
Microorganisms identify polymers as the source and retention power of organic compounds, In other words, biodegradable polymers are their food.
And also influence of extracellular and extracellular enzymes, the polymer bears a chemical reaction
And the polymer degrades through the polymer chain and oxidative excretion, As a result of this process, many enzymes are affected.
Different Types of Biodegradable Plastic
PHA naturally produces bacteria and genetically modified organisms (GMOs) plants, but there are plans to test production from food waste, and also PHB is the most widely used form of pH.
PAHs are expensive to manufacture because they are only produced in limited quantities from bacteria.
Polylactide acid (PLA)
PLA is a thermoplastic produced by bacterial fermentation, And also PLA is a long chain of many lactic acid molecules.
Since there are many cheaper ways to produce lactic acid, these must be polymerized or joined. Therefore, the PLA is lower than the PHA. However, the PLA breaks down and its uses are limited to the uses of the PHA, Manufacturers solve this problem by adding additives or polymers.
Cellulose acetate (CA) is a synthetic product derived from cellulose found in every part of the plant, It is equally important According to a 2015 scientific publication. In addition, cellulose is currently used in cotton, wood and crop waste.
After that It can be used to create molded solid plastics, cigarette filters, coatings, photographic-films, and filters, Biodegradable film made from cellophane cellulose,
Then according to Fiji, new research is underway to identify new plastic films from water-resistant and biodegradable waste crops and wood products.
The 2017 review states that flour is treated with heat, water and a plasticizer to produce a thermoplastic so it increase its strength,
It can be mixed with fillers made of other materials, For example Corn, wheat, potatoes, and cassava are the main sources of starch.
This type of plastic is used in the manufacture of packaging, bags, agricultural mulch, tableware, flower pots, packaging, as well as consumables.
In fact, the inclusion of carbohydrates in biobased and conventional plastics makes them more biodegradable. according to a 2017 Physical Report.
Polybutylene Adipate Terephthalate (PBAT)
It is a polymer derived from fossil fuel derivatives, It is also used in combination with starch. Then we took Efforts to manufacture this polymer from renewable sources are ongoing.
In addition Bioplastics Guide sees it as an alternative to LDPE and HDPE. As a result, This is used for making junk bags, wrapping films, disposable packaging, and tableware. Not only is it biodegradable, but also compost.
Basically, it is a synthetic polyester used for making compostable bags such as surface coatings, adhesives for shoes and leather,
And hardening materials for boots and orthopedic splints, As a result, plastic yeasts decompose. And also More than 90% film and 40% foam degrade with this material within 15 days.
In the end Worlds first synthetic plastic made in 1907 by Leo Baekeland and till now we develop different types of plastic for many uses.
In fact, many types of Plastics are going to play a big role in E Vehicles and space technologies because of its amazing physical properties and chemical properties.
1 – Polyethylene Terephthalate
2 – High-Density Polyethylene
3 – Polyvinyl Chloride
4 – Low-Density Polyethylene
5 – Polypropylene
6 – Polystyrene
7 – Other
Plastic 5 Is Polypropylene which is used to making food containers
it also called as food-grade plastic
There is two main types of Plastic Thermoplastics and Thermosetting Plastic
Polyhydroxyalkanoate (PHA),Polylactide acid (PLA), PBAT, Starch, PCL are biodegradable plastic.