The Treaty of Versailles was the most important in the peace settlement that ended The First World War. This agreement ended the war between Germany and the Allies.
The World War I (1914-1918) is finally over. This first world conflict claimed the lives of 9-13 million people and caused unprecedented loss. Germany officially surrendered on November 11, 1918. And all nations agreed to end the war while negotiating the terms of peace in The Treaty of Versailles.
On June 23, 1919 Germany and the Allied nations including Britain, France, Italy and Russia signed the Treaty of Versailles. So, officially ended the war (Versailles is a city in France ten kilometres from Paris).
Do you know what is causing this conflict? The total number of military and civilian casualties in World War I was about 40 million. Estimates put the number at about 15 to 22 million killed. And about 23 million wounded military personnel. Ranking it among the deadliest conflicts in human history before World War 2.
Hence, sometimes called “the Great War“.
Big Four, led to the formation of the Treaty of Versailles
Although, some 30 countries participated. They are representatives from the United Kingdom, France, the United States and Italy. They are simultaneously known as the “Big Four“. The “Big Four” dominated the program which led to the formation of the Treaty of Versailles which ended the First World War.
On June 28, 1914, the French Ferdinand, Archdiocese of Austria, heir to the Austrian-Hungarian throne, was assassinated by a Serbian nationalist. This accelerated the July Crisis, which led Austria-Hungary to Attack Serbia. And soon after the First World War, most of the European powers entered.
Two alliances clashed the central power, led by Germany and the Triple Entente, led by Britain, France and Russia. Other countries were scattered all over Europe, as well as the Middle East, Africa and Asia. In 1917, two revolutions took place in the Russian Empire.
On March 1918, the new Bolshevik government of Vladimir Lenin signed the Brest-Litovsk agreement, very favourable to Germany.
After victory was felt before the US military was ready. Germany has now moved its forces to the Western Front and has attempted to defeat the Allies. But they are fails. So, instead, the Allies won decisively on the battlefield. In November 1918, forced an arsenal similar to surrender.
The Treaty of Versailles clarified the compromises reached the conference. These include the planned formation of the League of Nations, which will serve as both an international forum and an international collective security system. U.S. President Woodrow Wilson was a staunch supporter of the league, believing it would prevent a future war.
Wilson’s Fourteen points
The Treaty of Versailles imposed extremely strict restrictions on Germany, including limiting its army to 1 lakh members. President Wilson, who opposed the agreement, has developed his own reconciliation form, called the “14 Points“. Points included the League of Nations provision to prevent “The War Crimes“.
Wilson also wanted to discuss openly all the terms of the settlement. However, according to the original terms of the agreement, the UN included a secret system of distribution to the winning German territories. Many historians believe that these terms ultimately led to World War 2.
On 8 January 1918, President Woodrow Wilson issued fourteen points for the country’s next wars. It outlines the principles of free trade, free trade and democracy. The entered word was not used as self-determination.
The call for the end of war negotiations, international disarmament, the withdrawal of central power from the occupied territories, the formation of a Polish state, the reconstruction of the borders of Europe on an ethnic basis and the formation of a League of Nations to guarantee the political independence and territorial integrity of all states.
It calls for unrelenting justice and democratic peace through regional integration. Based on the survey study, Fourteen Points were raised, with a team of about 150 advisers led by foreign policy adviser Edward M. House. But n the potential issues to be raised at the peace conference.
The League of Nations
The main objectives of the organization, as stated in its agreement, including the prevention of war through collective protection and disarmament and the settlement of international disputes through negotiation and arbitration.
Other matters in this and related agreements included working conditions, only the treatment of national residents, trafficking in human beings and drugs, the arms trade, world health, imprisonment for war and the protection of European minorities.
The League of Nations Treaty was signed as the first part of the Treaty of Versailles on June 28. And entered into force with the rest of the Treaty on 10 January 2020. The first meeting of the League Council held on 16 January 1920. And the first meeting of the League gathering held on November 15, 1920.
When the treaty was presented to the Germans, it had a significant difference with fourteen points, the United Kingdom and France have taken drastic measures against Germany.
The agreement forced Germany to occupy about 10% of the territory, with the exception of the territories it occupied before the war and severely limited the German army and the country’s arms production.
The “War Criminals” clause also forced Germany to take responsibility for the war and retaliate with the equivalent of about $33 billion US dollars. The treaty also created the League of Nations, to which Germany could not accede until 1926.
Surprisingly, Germany protested what it considered the harsh treatment and only signed the agreement to protest. After intense debate, the United States Senate rejected it, choosing for the first time not to approve a peace treaty.
Instead, Congress negotiated a separate agreement in 1921. The treaty did not include the League of Nations, which, according to opponents of the Senate, had too much power from the United States, and the United States would not join it never.
The agreement was strictly enforced for five years after the war, notably by France and Belgium. In 1924, the new agreement softened the terms of the agreement. The Great Depression badly affected Germany, the replacement was therefore cancelled in 1932.
In 1935, Hitler condemned the treaty, whose strong influence in Germany contributed to his idea and started to work to undermine it. World War II began in 1939, thus overturning the peace that the Versailles wanted to maintain.
The Paris Peace Conference was launched in January 1919. With the aim of concluding an agreement that would punish Germany and achieve the goals of various allied powers. The negotiation of this treaty, known as the Treaty of Versailles. It was a long and complicated process.
(1) The surrender of all the German colonies as a mandate of the League of Nations.
(2) The return of Alsace-Lorraine to France.
(3) Sessions of Uppen-Malmedi in Belgium, mail in Lithuania, district of Haltchin, Czechoslovakia.
(4) Poznanie, parts of East Prussia and of Upper Silesian Poland.
The main conditions of the Treaty of Versailles were:
(1) the surrender of all German colonies as an order of the League of Nations;
(2) Alsace-Lorraine’s return to France;
(3) From Uppen-Malmedi to Belgium, from Mail to Lithuania, from Haltschin district to Czechoslovakia,;
(4) from Poznania to parts of East Prussia and Upper Silesia to Poland.
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