They say wars lays the foundation of new society thus changing some fundamentals of world for ever .WORLD WAR 1 was fought for their supremacy, social status,for expansion and showcasing their power and at last stage is global domination
As far as human psychology they are not meant to end ever till the existence of human. There is always a constant war going on even if we are not having slightest idea of it (while i am writing this).
When we hear of WORLD WAR 1 or WORLD WAR 2 ,pictures of tanks, soldiers drown in muddy trenches, tanks etc comes floating to our mind. But do we know, why was it even started in first place and what were its aftermath which affects us still Today.
So let’s get started:
WHAT WE ARE TO LEARN :
- MAIN CAUSES
- IMMEDIATE CAUSES
- INDIANS IN WORLD WAR 1
- LATER HALF OF WAR
- HOW WORLD WAR 1 ENDED
Causes of world war 1 can be classified into 2 broader categories as the main causes and the immediate causes
Production of arms race, machine guns, tanks, large new naval ships in large quantities post the industrial revolution
Formation of large armies in order to capture and maintain new territories all over the world
Industries of European countries( especially Britain and Germany) started making artillery used for military equipments.
Since European countries were busy making new colonies all over he world ,multiple alliances in Europe formed since 19th century to maintain balance of power. There were two main alliances namely:
Triple alliance – 1882
- Austria Hungary
Since Africa was then not much discovered and after knowing it full of minerals european nations started scrambling for it in which Britain lead and everyone followed vast resources and manpower at disposal for the great war.
- Feeling of nationalism was prominent during the 19th and 20th century.
- Fighting for nation was a thing of pride.
- Germany, Italy, Baltic states meant nationalistic fervour belief in glory of war.
SOME OTHER IMPORTANT REASONS:
- Russian interest in influence over straits of organelles
- Illusions of short war: However, the nations at that time were assuming that this war is going to end in a short period of time.
There were also immediate causes which inginte the pre existing flaws in European society which led to the final out burst , they were known as :
Archduke Franz Ferdinand of Austria Hungary and his wife assassinated by Bosnian nationalist gavrilo prince and other members of black hand in SARAJEVO on 28 June 1914.
This led to a series of events which turned out to be an ugly war in which all nations jumped in :
Events leading to war –
- Firstly,Austria Hungary sends humiliating terms to Serbia
- Secondly,Russia mobilises in support of Slavic Serbia
- As a result,Germany gives Austria Hungary empire a blank cheque.
- Austria Hungary and Germany declare war on Serbia
- Russia and France declares war on Germany
And finally the biggest war of that time started .
(Now, you might be wondering why Italy not declared a war in behalf of triple alliance powers.
Italy refused to help Austria Hungary stating the reason that the treaty says nation will protect if war is declared on them not by them and since Austria Hungary first declared war they were not the victim of war.
- Germany army marches into Belgium en route France
- As a result Britain declares war on Germany
- Germany got initial success against Russian armies on eastern front.
- They didn’t reached paris though.
- Ottoman empire(modern day Turkey) attacks Russia, tries to capture Suez canal (because Suez canal was a very important strategic point)
WHAT HAPPENED DURING THE WAR:
- France and Germany kept fighting for 4 years and possible outcome was yet to seen despite soldiers getting killed in huge numbers everyday.
- Trenches were made into use for artillery shelling. Narrow holes were drugged to many kilometres in length, soldiers were meant to live there, eat there and subsequently fight from there which was very difficult.
- Horrible conditions :The hygiene conditions of trenches and even the whole battle ground as a whole were horrible. As antibiotics was not discovered back then , many died because of infection.
- Huge casualties in small gains: Everyday humongous numbers of death occurred. Whole Europe went deaf certainly by lamenting of soldier’s family .
- Battle of Somme – 80000 died in one day
- (World record for most died in one day)
Many war movies are made on this subject of world wars which are not only very intruiging but also very exciting.
As the name itself screams, it was not just a few countries war but many nations all over the world were indulged in this blood bath.
- Fighting in multiple colonies of Africa – Togo, Tanzania and Cameroon
- Japan also jumped into war and attacked Micronesian and Chinese colonies of germ nay (because of peace treaty signed to Britain).
- Ottoman ships bombard black sea port of Russia.
- Gallipoli (city in Turkey, soldiers of Austria and New Zealand called kwanzaa army)campaign by allies as a result even today kwanzaa day is celebrated.
- Naval war – Germany U boats attack allied ships.
HOWEVER, American president Woodruff Wilson refused to take part in what he called European war but later on 1917 he to got involved and backed the allies power ( as was friend of Britain.
ALSO LEARN ABOUT : COLD WAR
As we all know, India in 1917 was a British colony, so the Indians soldiers had to fight in behalf of cherishers due to which we have to suffer heavy loss.
- 1.3 millions took part(50k died)
- Fought mainly in France, middle east (Mesopotamia) Egypt
FACT :India gate memorial which is situated in NEW DELHI has names of soldiers who martyred during world war 1 and Anglo afghani was carved to it.
ALSO LEARN ABOUT : INDIA PAKISTAN WARS
USA got involved in April, 1917:
USA got benefited by world war 1 initially by supping weapons to both sides which laid the foundation of it for what it is today A SUPERPOWER .Lets see how and why it got involved which it first labelled as European war :
Earlier neutral but supplied to both sides
Economic support -arms, food and supplies
Joined the British on western front
Germany wrote a secret letter to Mexico urging them to attack on US because they were sure anytime in near future USA will participate in war favouring brain their enemy . Some how this secret leaked to USA and their then president Woodrow Wilson decided to teach Germans a lesson.
Then,the PRESIDENT Wilson wrote a 14 point letter stating why USA is participating in war and what they want from the war.
As a result Peace, freedom of navigation, end to imperialism, League of nations.
Revolution in Russia 1917
Then a series of revolutions started in Russia too which were as follows:
- February revolution- Tsar Nicholas ii(their monarch) was overthrown
- October revolution – Bolsheviks under linen(communist leader) come to power
- Linen signs peace agreement with Germany
- Treaty of Brest – litotes in march 1918
- War on eastern front ends
After almost 5 years of bloodshed from all over the globe, countries finally started making decisions for end of this abysmal affair.
- Allied armies push from Balkans ,Italy , middle east overrun central power
- On western front, with fresh USA troops, allies defeat Germany army
- Germany signed an armistice on 11 11 November 1918
Treaty of Versailles – 28 June 1919
6 months long negotiations held at the palace of Versailles, Paris.
- Guilt of war was placed upon central powers (especially GERMANY).
- Borders of changed and redrawn of many eastern European countries and African nations thus forming new nations.
- Heavy war penalties or reparations levied on Germany
- Colonies of Germany divided by Britain and France.
Graveyard of empires
The following empires were collapsed as soon as war ended:
- German empire– Hohenzollern
- Austria Hungarian empire- Habsburg
- Russian empire – Romanov
- Ottoman empire – caliphate abolished (Muslim high level spiritual guru, also led to philately movement in India)
New countries formed
- Austria, Hungary, Czechoslovakia, Yugoslavia (formed from Austria Hungarian empire)
- Estonia, Latvia, litigant, Poland, Finland (formed from USA and Germany)
- Radio, tanks armoured cars, submarines, machine guns, mustard gas, chemical warfare
- Aeroplane used for bombing
AFTERMATH OF WW1:
1.LOSS OF HUMAN LIVES:
- Millions died due to disease, mainly infections
- 50 million deaths because of Spanish Flu
- Soldiers who fought ww1 were post traumatic due to stress disorder
- Male populations declined in Europe due to excessive deaths of soldiers.
2. Social and Cultural:
- Glory and romanticism was gone
- Women started working in factories
- Rise of Hitler in Germany
- Great Britain went debtor: Earlier Britain was a wealthy nation but due to losses suffered in war it went debtor.
- However,USA financially boomed till1929 (great depression)
- USA became international power which underwent cold war with russia and then tariff war with china in future
- Subsequently, Rise of Hitler.
- Political movement in Turkey.
- Formation of League of nations (FIRST INTERNATIONAL UNION)
It is rightly said that there is no true winner of war , even if some wins humanity losses. War follows mass destruction of both human and economical sources . It certainly pushes countries to back to many years financially. World war 1 or global war or whatever you say it is still one of the most heinous war fought till date which caused great agony.
In my opinion , it should be avoid as much as possible for the good of us and for the betterment of nations and humanity as a whole , with the world advancing leaps and bounds technology countries are always eager to show their nuclear muscles without knowing what will it cost us.
GUYS, history is meant to be learnt from, we humans the so called the most evolved species should also learn from our mistakes before putting next step to prosperous future but that didn’t happened what followed was world war 2 .
Learn and grow.
FREQUENTLY ASKED QUESTIONS
When was world war 1 started?
Why was world war 1 started?
What were central countries during world war 1 ?
Austro Hungarian empire (Habuserg dynasty)
Ottoman empire ( modern day turkey)
Which countries were in allied powers during world war 1?